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Humber the Hun

2020.09.19 20:55 StevenStevens43 Humber the Hun

Humber the Hun
Humber the Hun:
Humber the Hun was supposed to have been part of the invasions of Albion, beginning in 1112 BC.
Humber the Hun
Humber the Hun (Gaelic: Emer or Éber mac Ír, or Éber Don mac Ír Ulaid) son of Ír and grandson of Miled, was a legendary king of so-called "Huns" who, according to Gafridian legend, invaded the British Isles in about the 12th century BC. His people successfully conquered Scotia but he himself was drowned during his campaign against Southern Britain. His sons became the Kings of Ulster and ultimately Dál Riata, the earliest Kingdom of Scotland. At some point, he began to equated with his namesake Donn, the Gaelic God of the Dead.
Latin:
Now, nobody knows who the Huns are.
Particularly modern Latin speakers.
In the Latin language, Scotti means Gaels.
Scotti
Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,[1]
Link for photo
Royal Scottish flag
Hun:
However, even today, the Gaelic word for Scot, is Hun.
This means that Gaelic speakers might have a slightly better grasp on who the Huns might have been, than the modern Romanised Latin speaker.
It also means that when modern day Scots during football matches with the Auld enemy sing "Go home ya Hun", they are actually "wrong".
The Huns were the Scoloti.
Luckily the Scots don't face too much shame regarding this fact, as the other half of the Auld enemy are also unaware of the fact that they are infact "not" the Huns.
Pop culture
Modern Ulster Scots and other Scots Protestants are still referred to as Huns by Gaels.[10
Link for photo
2011 Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland
Hungary:
Now obviously, the word "Hun" is pretty much synonymous with the country named Hungary, suggesting that Huns may have certain origins in this area.
After-all, Humber the Hun is said to have arrived in the Humber from Germany.
Of course, there was no such place as Germany in 1112 BC.
It was Gaul, and Gaul was a name that pertained to the entire area of mainland inhabited by Gaelic speaking Gauls, which at this point in history, would have included Hungary.
Mediaeval history
When Locrinus raided Humber's ships after his death, he found Humber's consort Estrildis,[2][3] the daughter of the King of Germany there.
Link for photo
Hungary
Hungarians:
The modern day word for "Hun", as in Hungary, derived from the Huns from Eurasia, not the Huns from Humber.
Well, not immediately anyway.
Etymology
The "H" in the name of Hungary (and Latin Hungaria) is most likely due to founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars.
Link for photo
Hunnic warrior
Scythian sphere:
However, the land of Hungary pre-dated the country of Hungary, and back in the Iron age, Hungary did not exist, and was infact part of the Scythian sphere.
History of Hungary
Hungary in its modern (post-1946) borders roughly corresponds to the Great Hungarian Plain (the Pannonian basin). During the Iron Age, it was at the boundary of Celtic, Illyrian and Iranian (Scythian) cultural spheres.
Link for photo
Alba Albanian flag
Royal Scoloti:
Now, Scythia was a "big" region.
It also took in an Iranian area known as Sogdiana.
The aristocrats were known as the Royal Scoloti.
Scythians
.[10][13] Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Scythia
Scythia
Sogdiana:
Now Sogdiana, whilst being part of Scythia, in turn, ruled an empire which stretched to the border of China.
Sogdia
Sogdia (/ˈsɒɡdiə/) (Sogdian: soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent, and Shahrisabz. Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid Empire,
Link for photo
Sogdia
Sogdiana princesses:
During the annexation of the empire by Alexander the Great, Alexander had Sogdiana princesses sent to breed with his Greek friends.
Biography
Antiochus I was half Sogdian,[2][3] his mother Apama, daughter of Spitamenes, being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC.[4]
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Alexander the Great
Auld Edina:
It is likely that Scotlands current day capital city of Edinburgh (Auld Edina), from the root word Dun Eideann, is derived from the Royal Scoloti sogdiana.
Edinburgh
Edinburgh (/ˈɛdɪnbərə/ (📷listen);[8][9][10] Scots: Edinburgh; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann
Link for photo
Athens of the North
Xiongnu:
Now, this is where the Xiongnu come in to this.
The Xiongnu were a "Nomadic" tribe, and one might know to suspect, that when you see the word "Nomadic" it is likely referring to a certain Aryan peoples that got Nomadism in to their DNA after requiring to leave their homelands during the younger dryas.
Xiongnu
The Xiongnu (Chinese: 匈奴; Wade–Giles: Hsiung-nu, [ɕjʊ́ŋ.nǔ]) were a tribal confederation[3] of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire.[4]
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Xiongnu territory
Huaxia people:
Now Chinese history draws a distinction between the more civilised Huaxia people (Indigenous Mongolians) and the more barbaric Nomadic Xiongnu.
Early history
.[19] It also draws a distinct line between the settled Huaxia people (Chinese) to the pastoral nomads (Xiongnu), characterizing it as two polar groups in the sense of a civilization versus an uncivilized society
Hua-Yi distinction:
It is called the Hua-Yi distinction.
Hua-Yi distinction
The distinction between Huá and (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huá Yí zhī biàn), also known as Sino–barbarian dichotomy,[1] is an ancient Chinese concept that differentiated a culturally defined "China" (called Huá, Huaxia 華夏; Huáxià, or Xià ) from cultural or ethnic outsiders (, conventionally "barbarians"). Although Yí is often translated as "barbarian", other translations of this term in English include "foreigners",[2]
Modu Chanyu:
Now, the Xiongnu under Mody Chanyu, almost overthrew the Chinese emperor.
State formation
After forging internal unity, Modu Chanyu expanded the empire on all sides. To the north he conquered a number of nomadic peoples, including the Dingling of southern Siberia. He crushed the power of the Donghu people of eastern Mongolia and Manchuria as well as the Yuezhi in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu, where his son, Jizhu, made a skull cup out of the Yuezhi king. Modu also reoccupied all the lands previously taken by the Qin general Meng Tian.
Under Modu's leadership, the Xiongnu threatened the Han dynasty, almost causing Emperor Gaozu, the first Han emperor, to lose his throne in 200 BC.[31]
Link for photo
Xiongnu expansion
Chinese princesses and Great wall of China:
The Chinese decided to build a great wall, as a border to define the territory between Xiongnu and China, and to attempt to appease the Xiongnu, they began sending them Chinese princesses, along with other gifts including money and alcohol.
Marraige diplomacy
The Han sent princesses to marry Xiongnu leaders in their efforts to stop the border raids. Along with arranged marriages, the Han sent gifts to bribe the Xiongnu to stop attacking.[31] After the defeat at Pingcheng in 200 BC, the Han emperor abandoned a military solution to the Xiongnu threat. Instead, in 198 BC , the courtier Liu Jing&action=edit&redlink=1) [zh)] was dispatched for negotiations. The peace settlement eventually reached between the parties included a Han princess given in marriage to the chanyu (called heqin) (Chinese: 和親; lit.: 'harmonious kinship'); periodic gifts to the Xiongnu of silk, distilled beverages and rice; equal status between the states; and the Great Wall as mutual border.
Cant beat them, join them:
However, the raids did not stop, and the Hans Chinese decided to attempt to forge an alliance with them.
Marraige diplomacy
The Xiongnu also practiced marriage alliances with Han dynasty officers and officials who defected to their side. The older sister of the Chanyu (the Xiongnu ruler) was married to the Xiongnu General Zhao Xin, the Marquis of Xi who was serving the Han dynasty. The daughter of the Chanyu was married to the Han Chinese General Li Ling after he surrendered and defected.[39][40][41][42] Another Han Chinese General who defected to the Xiongnu was Li Guangli, general in the War of the Heavenly Horses, who also married a daughter of the Chanyu.[43]
Envoy:
Behind the backs of the Xiongnu, the Hans Chinese sent an envoy to go and explore the Western world and try and find an ally to help fight the Xiongnu, however the information received back from the envoy, put China into a state of emergency, and expelling the Xiongnu became a matter of urgency.
It is not know exactly what the message was, but i assume it was along the lines of "those people are everywhere".
Han xiongnu war
The Han dynasty made preparations for war when the Han Emperor Wu dispatched the explorer Zhang Qian to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people in order to combat the Xiongnu. During this time Zhang married a Xiongnu wife, who bore him a son, and gained the trust of the Xiongnu leader.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51] While Zhang Qian did not succeed in this mission,[52] his reports of the west provided even greater incentive to counter the Xiongnu hold on westward routes out of China,
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Han China
Southern Xiongnu & Northern xiongnu:
The result of the war, was that the Chinese would be successful in putting a barrier between themselves and the Xiongnu, by placing a southern Xiongnu between themselves and a Northern Xiongnu.
Southern Xiongnu and Northern Xiongnu
In 48 AD, a confederation of eight Xiongnu tribes in Bi's power base in the south, with a military force totalling 40,000 to 50,000 men, seceded from Punu's kingdom and acclaimed Bi as chanyu. This kingdom became known as the Southern Xiongnu.
600 year empire destroyed:
In the year 439 AD, 600 years of Xiongnu living in this area came to an end, and finally China rid themselves of the last remnants of Xiongnu.
Juqu and)
By 439, the Juqu power was destroyed by the Northern Wei. Their remnants were then settled in the city of Gaochang before being destroyed by the Rouran.
Tribute:
Now, the Xiongnu done to the Chinese, exactly what the Huns would do to the Romans.
Significance
The Xiongnu confederation was unusually long-lived for a steppe empire. The purpose of raiding China was not simply for goods, but to force the Chinese to pay regular tribute.
Contemporary understanding:
Now, believe it or not, the Xiongnu being the same group as the Huns, is actually now the contemporary view amongst historians and scholars.
However contemporary, is not the same thing as general consensus.
Huns
.[70] Although the theory that the Xiongnu were precursors of the Huns known later in Europe is now accepted by many scholars, it has yet to become a consensus view.
Link for photo
Hunnic invasion
Turkic descendency:
Now, Turks claim that the Xiongnu were Turkish, because they are descended from Xiongnu.
However ascended, and descended, are two different things.
I am sure it is possible, that by the time the Sogdians came out of Mongolia, they were now quite Turkic.
Turkic
Uyghur Khagans claimed descent from the Xiongnu (according to Chinese history Weishu, the founder of the Uyghur Khaganate was descended from a Xiongnu ruler).[86]
Both the 7th-century Chinese History of the Northern Dynasties[87] and the Book of Zhou,[88] an inscription in the Sogdian language, report the Göktürks to be a subgroup of the Xiongnu.[89][90]
Iranian ancestors:
However, scholars tend to agree that when the Xiongnu first arrived in Mongolia, they were Northern Iranian speakers.
Iranian
Harold Walter Bailey proposed an Iranian origin of the Xiongnu, recognizing all the earliest Xiongnu names of the 2nd century BC as being of the Iranian type.[9] This theory is supported by turkologist Henryk Jankowski).[10] Central Asian scholar Christopher I. Beckwith notes that the Xiongnu name could be a cognate of Scythian, Saka and Sogdia, corresponding to a name for Northern Iranians.[27][
Chinese Hun:
Now, the word the Chinese used to refer to the Xiongnu as, translates pretty much in to English as "Hun".
Some may mistake this as the word "Hun" having Chinese origins.
However, it is more likely that the Chinese referred to them by a word similar to Hun, because, that is what the Xiongnu of the time likely referred to themselves as.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.16 05:26 UchuuStranger Volga Tatar results (+looking for fresh Turk results)

Volga Tatar results (+looking for fresh Turk results)
So here's what I got:

https://preview.redd.it/3vyyw93yxcn51.png?width=1222&format=png&auto=webp&s=8f5d3da227833752ebcc5991911745c80d16ae13
Now I will attempt to interpret these results and explain the notes I did on the diagram. I originate from Russia (my parents and close relatives all still live in Russia), and I am 7/8 Volga Tatar 1/8 Bashkir (or, to be precise, 5/32 Bashkir - my parents have genealogy records going 7 generations back). Though the exact numbers don't matter much, because Volga Tatars and Bashkirs are very close both genetically and culturally, so they can be considered a single ethnicity for our purposes, and I don't consider myself a "mixed" person. Just to be clear, Volga Tatars and Bashkirs are not related to Russians or any other Slavic ethnicities, we are indigenous Russian peoples that have language, culture and religion similar to Turkish. How come my report is so multi-colored then?
I did some research, and this is the picture I came up with (please correct me if I made a mistake anywhere). I'm pretty confident that the purple segments of my DNA comes from ancient Turks who inhabited Central Asia about 2000 years ago. 23andMe currently calls this segment "Anatolian", but this name is not exactly accurate, because Turks did not settle in Anatolia all the way until the 11th century, and I have reasons to believe that my ancestors in particular split from them earlier than that.
The green segment most likely also comes from them, ancient Turks were central Asians after all. While it's possible that some of the green is a later admixture, I find it hard to imagine that all of the green is a later admixture. And this video also seems to suggest that modern Turks have some Central Asian DNA. In order to confirm this, I'd like to hear from people whose all four grandparents are Turks and who took 23andMe DNA test. I found some of the Turkish results posted online, but it appears that the results dating back more than a year from now had different map allocations. In particular, Kazakhstan was considered East Asia back then, rather than Central Asia, and a few other countries in that region were considered West Asia compared to now. That leads me to believe that the results have recently been updated, and that compared to a year ago, now 23andMe might allocate a part of DNA to Central Asia for Turkish customers. Perhaps even my purple segment should be colored green instead (or possibly blue - see below), as I definitely don't have any ancestors who literally came from Anatolia. I'd love to hear from Turkish customers to be proven wrong though.
Anyway, the crucial point in genesis of my ancestors happened in the 7th century: that's when a faction of ancient Turks near the Black Sea split off and mixed with some other Indo-Europeans (Thracians? my results suggest that I do have some DNA in common with southern Europeans) to found the nation of Bulgars. The Great Old Bulgaria was short-lived, however, and under pressure from Khazars it fell apart, and different groups of Bulgars had to migrate elsewhere. One of the two largest of them went west, mixed with local Slavs, and founded the First Bulgarian Empire (a predecessor of modern Bulgaria). Another went north-east, mixed with local Finno-Ugric peoples, and founded Volga Bulgaria (a predecessor of modern Tatarstan). Both of these states became sedentary as a result.
I believe that the bulk of ancestry of modern Volga Tatars, Bashkirs and Chuvash people is coming from Volga Bulgars, and that except for the Mongolian admixture in the 13th century as a result of Batu Khan's conquest (it was devastating but short-lived, so the East Asian admixture was quickly reduced to insignificant portion), the genetic composition of Volga Tatars and Bashkirs remained relatively unchanged. I don't believe there was much mixing with Slavs, if any, and if there was, it happened before the 10th century, when Volga Bulgaria adopted Islam and Kievan Rus adopted Orthodox Christianity. Unfortunately, the way 23andMe does its ancestry composition right now does not allow to effectively distinguish Slavic DNA from DNA of indigenous Russian peoples who are not Slavs, so even if I had a Russian ancestor (which is unlikely), I would have no way of knowing by this test.
If you see a flaw in my reasoning, have an ancestry composition that can contribute to understanding of the whole picture (in addition to Turkish, it would be interesting to see Bulgarian, Chuvash, Kazakh, Altai/Yakut/Siberian Tatar compositions), or just have anything to add in general, leave a comment below.
submitted by UchuuStranger to 23andme [link] [comments]


2020.09.15 14:00 autotldr Southern Mongolia turns to police state as full-blown cultural genocide unfolds

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 78%. (I'm a bot)
In a desperate move to bring Mongolian children to school, the Chinese authorities mobilized a vast army of police, SWAT teams, plainclothes officials, and interim social workers to terrorize the entire Mongolian populace.
Arbitrary arrest, extrajudicial detention, forced disappearance, and house arrest are so widespread that the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center estimates at least 4,000 to 5,000 Mongolians have been placed under some form of police custody during the past three weeks.
In the latest case, following news of the resignation of an increasing number of Mongolian officials, teachers, and even school principals, Ms. Ulaan, principal of the Ereen-hot Mongolian Elementary School, reportedly committed suicide at her home on the morning of September 9, 2020.
Eight other lives lost to date include a Mongolian student from Sheebert Mongolian Middle School in Horchin Left Wing Middle Banner, a Mongolian parent from Ongniud Banner, a Mongolian teacher and poet from Shuluun-huh Banner, Mongolian college student from the Inner Mongolia Normal University, a 27-year-old teacher from Huree Banner, a teacher from Bayantal Sum of Ongniuud Banner, a Mongolian official from Alshaa Left Banner and a Mongolian middle schooler in Hulun-boir League.
Another similar report from the Uzumchin Right Banner shows that as of September 13, the attendance of Mongolian students is only 12.6%. Video clips and other communications show that an increasing number of students who are confined to their schools have managed to escape the campus to join the school boycott.
A young Mongolian man stated in a short video clip that printing services in his area of Tongliao Municipality are refusing to serve Mongolian customers.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: Mongolian#1 school#2 Banner#3 student#4 Southern#5
Post found in /worldnews, /mongolia and /China.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]


2020.09.07 23:20 k3eb22 Top 10 Changes CK3 Needs

To be clear I love the game. I am really enjoying it. It is a great release for Paradox. The Dev team should be very proud of themselves. I am SUPER confident the game will only get better and better. That said:
  1. The AI running to sea to get away from you is really stupid. They run to sea constantly given any opportunity. It is infuriating and unrealistic. I don't think we need to bring back boats, but the AI can't just fuck off whenever it wants.
  2. The ability to raise levies by county. Basically we have a Raise all Armies button and raise local armies button. That's all.
  3. The AI shouldn't be so attracted to your capital. Every war consists of me waiting for the AI to get to my capital before venturing forth.
  4. The whole Crusade system is broken. I shouldn't be limited in who I pick as my benefactor. In addition, my benefactor always ends up converting to Islam which makes beyond 0 sense.
  5. Succession Improvements - "Succession needs to be looked at and improved. Period." I can understand if the dev's dont want to unlock Primo early, but having it behind an arbitrary date is strange. At the very least, there should be more succession options like a will to assign heirs land. I know the devs want it to be a challenge to deal with the succession, but it factually isn't hard to get all your other boys killed. All it does is ruin it for role-players. "I need to kill them for the good of the realm" gets really old. I don't want to have to kill literally every boy my main dynastic family ever has. It doesn't have to be "first son gets everything super early in the game." There just needs to be more progression options that give more ability to consolidate your realm. The devs built a really cool system for succession options, but right now all the multiple partition options are essentially the same.
  6. The way people become bastards after they are born is absurd. https://www.reddit.com/crusaderkings/comments/imcvno/_/ A plot should not turn someone into a bastard that actually isn't.
  7. More "flavor" features from CK2 back in the game. Add the sounds back to executions. Also allow to choose the method of execution. Little things like this really add flavor to the game.
  8. Your capital county should ALWAYS follow your player heir. This doesn't happen with elective succession and it is really really stupid and infuriating.
  9. Things like the Pope role should take culture into account. My last 3 popes have all been Mongolian. (It is either a bug in this specific game file or just really really strange luck, the pope died again and is again Mongolian, that is 4 times now)
  10. There needs to be more programming rules surrounding certain traits. To be clear, I love the stress system, but in some cases the trait limitations make no sense. For example I had a Generous character. In a civil war I won the war and imprisoned the uprising. I couldn't take their titles without MASSIVE stress because I am Generous. That shouldn't be the case. They rose up against me and I beat them. If I was just taking titles for the hell of it SURE have the stress penalty makes great sense. If I have a legal reason to take their titles the stress addition is silly. This is another wonderful example: https://www.reddit.com/CrusaderKings/comments/iofz01/this_should_really_be_listed_under_the/
(BONUS #11 - As others have pointed out the game really needs a ledger!)
Overall this is a great experience. I can't stop playing. I know how much you support your games and I know that with time and DLC this already great experience will be even better.
submitted by k3eb22 to CrusaderKings [link] [comments]


2020.09.07 04:38 500scnds [Table] My name is Paolo Cattaneo. 5 years ago I quit my job, sold everything I had and embarked in a trip around the world on a motorcycle. Rode for almost 185000 km. Still going! Here to answer question about self sustained living on the road and long distance solo travelling. AmA! (pt 1)

Source Guestbook
Questions Answers
How much does this lifestyle cost you on average? Obviously it will vary by location Since the most asked question will be probably this one, I decided to break it down mathematically so, hopefully, it would be more transparent for everybody.
I don't think I could summarize with an average how much I spent per month, since the delta from month to month was absolutely unpredictable. But somehow everybody seems to love maths so... There you go.
A couple of things first: 1) different countries have different cost for food, accommodation, fuel and spare parts so to make an average, it s actually quite hard. For instance, a country like Peru cannot be compared in terms of costs with a country like the Netherlands in all terms. 2) when I travel, I am not on vacation. Just because I visit places and don't work, doesn't mean I can afford things like people that go on vacation for 2 weeks. People on holidays usually maintain the same level of comfort they have at home, or even improve it, righteously spoiling themselves, for the few days they have off in a year. I do the exact opposite. I spoil myself by not having to go to work.
Hence, there are 3 major costs in travelling on a motorcycles are: 1) fuel and bike parts (tyres, oil, filters, etc) 2) accommodation 3) food
These are also in order of importance. Fuel and bike maintenance guarantees the continuity of the journey so, those have the absolute priority. Where I sleep or what I eat, do not matter much. I will survive whatever I eat and wherever I sleep. It's incredible what our body can do end endure.
After a year of travelling I found out that, because my life and routine changed completely, I didn't need 3 meals a day anymore. Removing 1 meal a day allowed me to save a lot of money in the long run. It is a sacrifice but it is doable and It is super practical. I also found fasting good for the mind.
Sleeping arrangements could also affect greatly on your expenditures so, depending on countries and weather conditions, I usually opt to sleep in my tent or in hostels. Sometimes I do couchsurfing or stay at other motorcyclists houses, friends, friends of friends, etc. I ve also slept at complete strangers houses that i met on the road and that were reaching out simply to help. It s unbelievable how many people, just want to give you a hand. It s impossible to explain it. You have to see it yourself to believe it.
The cheap hostel in Peru would cost $5-6 a night, while in the USA $25.
In this sense, I estimated an average of 10 USD a night for accommodation for and average of 20 days per month. Again, It is a rough estimate. Let s say the other 10 days I sleep at people's houses, or in my tent or couchsurfing (so at no cost). Foodwise I usually drink a coffee (I carry my own little Italian coffee machine) in the am, with a piece of bread or instant oatmeal. Then I ride the whole day and reach my destination at 4-5 pm. I then eat. I mostly eat vegetarian but i occasionally have meat. I mostly shop at cheap supermarkets or local markets. Vegetables are cheap and nutritious and available all over the world. And so is pasta and rice. This whole thing costs me let s say 10 USD a day.
So for Food and Accommodation I roughly spend 500 USD. Then there's fuel. Fuel costs can vary from country to country but, for the sake of it, let s put fuel price at 1.2 USD a liter (4.5 USD a gallon). My bike in standard riding conditions does 20km per liter of fuel. In 5 years I rode 180000 km. That's 36000 a year. That s 3000 a month. So 3000/20 = 150 liters. 150 x 1.2 = 180 USD
The grand total is 500+180= 680USD per month Let s put 100 USD in for extras and whatever. It's 780 USD a month, if you will. But trust me when I say that I think I spend less than that.
There you go.
the below is a reply to the above
What is your coffee maker? Moka pot i'm guessing? I have a little Bialetti coffee machine, yes. :)
the below is a reply to the above
Yeah, that confirms you are really Italian. So is my SO, and when we are traveling, she will start complaining about the bad coffee by the time we get to the airport 😄 I am Italian...but I'm also passed that point of complaining about food all the time! I learned to enjoy my meal...regardless. :)
another coffee reply
Any tips for the Bialetti? A neighbor gave me one and I used it with Café Bustelo and it was crazy stong, albeit not too bad. Use less coffee ground! 😅
the below is another reply to the original answer
If you saved 40k, are you down to very little money now? I'm just thinking it's been 5 years, and I imagine you've had some unexpected expenses that would have your average end up being relatively accurate on aggregate, even if you typically spend less in a month. At $700 per month, you would be out of money. And even just the plane tickets from Australia to starting point and from somewhere to Greece where you say you were during Covid is a couple months of your budget I'd imagine. Yes, i had some unforeseen expenses. But luckily I also had a lot of help from people giving me shelter and food. In that sense I didn't spend all my money in food and accommodation but for the sake of average expenses I had to calculate it that way. In greece i found a job as volunteer in exchange of accommodation. That saved me 3 months of rent. Things like this cannot be included in average. I simply did the math to make people understand how much would it cost if life on the road would be without variables. There are too many to be considered.
the below is another reply to the original answer
Even if it's only 600 at month, you have been riding around for how long? It seems hard to think you saved so much and you are still using the money you saved. Is anyone helping you financially? I swear...i am using my money. 😅👍 It s hard to imagine how cheap it is to live frugally...if you renounce to most comforts we have in life. But I wouldn't mind now to have a benefactor(s) and sleep in a comfy bed or have a nice meal for a change.
Does it not worry you how you might have exhausted your financial resources by the time you want to return? What do you think life after this would be like? I hope I don't sound rude; just trying to understand how you are managing your life. What you are doing is absolutely amazing; I'd love to travel too but I am not rich either, and the thought of ending up penniless by the time I am 30 terrifies me. Hey, it's a completely plausible question and I am happy to answer that. Quitting your job, your financial stability, selling everything you have, saying goodbye to everybody and ride off...it is a "liberating" experience. In this sense, all the fears you mentioned are gone or somehow abandoned, the moment you decide to go for it! I have no fear of what lies in front of me because the mental step that I took years ago, required me to go beyond exactly this mental gap of "jumping into the unknown". Financially speaking, yeah, i don't like to have no money aside...but also, I know that I will do something about it (like finding a new stimulating gig) when the time comes. When I found myself locked in Greece during the pandemic, I couldn't really foresee what would have happened in the next months. Surely paying rent for months and being confined in an apartment wasn't ideal so I looked for volunteering jobs. Found one that allowed me to stay in an apartment for free in exchange of 3 hours of work per day. My point is that, adaptation is a key skill that I got to develop thanks to this experience on a motorcycle. I will take care of the my retirement plan, when time comes.
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Thanks for the answer. That's a wonderful perspective. I guess your anxiety lessens once you realize how capable you are of adapting to different situations, which I'm sure you must have had to do a bunch of times since you started. You are amazing, thanks for the inspiration :) It's incredible how inclined we are to adapt, If we simply...TRY ! I never thought I would be able to do a lot of things I am doing today. I just gave it a try...failed...and tried again. I did learn, by simply trying. And I'm clearly not the sharpest tool in the shed.
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I feel like you cloud start vlogging your journeys, and form a Patreon to fund it. You've seen lots of fun things, and will see more. Yes. At the beginnings I started blogging but then I realized that it would have turned my trip into a job again...so i left the monetization of my journey aside. I just quit my job to travel and enjoy my life. Didn't want to think about money again! Patreon seem good but I haven't really found the guts to ask money to people...yet. When I ll be in need maybe i will!
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In no way am I trying to attack you or diminish your extraordinary feat; just the fact that you had the courage to take the first step gives me crazy respect for you. BUT. There is so much privilege needed to get to where you have gotten. Not financial privilege mind you, you've worked your arse off to get here. But the fact that you could somehow travel to and stay in the US (for 3 years!) and then Australia without really thinking twice tells me your white skin and European passport has played a huge role in your mental safety net. As a coloured man with a shitty passport, just getting a visa to fly somewhere would be a huge fucking deal. Add to that the racism I'd face in plenty of places around the world, yeah not happening haha. You are absolutely right, my friend. I do understand that the fact that I am white and that I have an EU passport helped me A LOT. I am absolutely aware of this and I am not so naive to think that most of the times I got away with many things because of this. Coming from other countries or being a different colour could unfortunately still play a role, these days, when moving from country to country. Said this, I got denied my entrance to USA few times anyway. They are quite strict in that sense. But it always depends on the customs officer you find at the time of entry. Anyway. I get your point. Although, it's not a definite factor for your will to travel. You can still do it.
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I love everything you're doing and have spent the last hour just reading your answers. I don't think you're answering anymore but... Do you have any plans of coming to India? I hope I get to meet you if you do come. Hey! Of course i have plans for India! Hopefully the covid will end soon! It all depends on that now
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You can write blogs, and make YouTube videos to sustain your adventures! I am sure many of us would like to see your journey. I got few videos on youtube but i never really invested too much time (clearly) in that. Maybe I should
I always hear about people "giving up everything" and traveling the world. However, most people have worries about their economic status. Can you speak to yours at the point when you embarked? How much money had you saved, did you have any debt, what did you do with your belongings (Were there things you stored somewhere because you did want to sell or get rid of them? Did you pay for storage?), did you create a plan to generate additional income (e.g., plans for side jobs while traveling), and have you thought how to re-integrate into the "working world" when your traveling concludes (or are you hoping YouTube, etc. supports you)? Thanks! So, I started saving money when I moved to Australia. In 5 years I rounded up $40k more or less. I had no debts and, regardless the bank offering me "super interesting" offers about Credit Cards or Mortgages to buy properties, I didn't end up getting in debts with any banks. I also avoided kids and wives. I was renting an apartment and sharing it with a friend. When I decided to leave I sold all my furnitures on Gumtree (local Craigslist) and donated all my clothes to Salvation Army (Goodwill). I had no belongings left except what I piled on the bike when I left. And few months in I also realized that I didn't even need some stuff that I brought along. I did quit my job with no plans to work while travelling. I wanted, for the first time in my life, have a moment to simply ENJOY THE MOMENT without thinking about work and life as I knew it. I wanted to experience freedom, without the burden of thinking about my future constantly and what's going to happen next. I was raised with this mental construct too, so to break free from that was indeed liberating. I do not know how is going to be when this part of my life ends. If I have to go back to work, I will. But with a different heart and mind.
How did you manage it, physically? I find that my legs, back, bottom and body ache after just a few hours of riding (3+ hours), and this gets worse and worse over time (6+ hours, etc). Even on a comfortable touring motorcycle, I can’t imagine riding continuously for weeks or months at a time. Yes. Physically was challenging indeed. I had to replace my seat because the was no more foam inside. It was like sitting on a stool. Back and arse are the worst affected areas. I rode with a bit of a windscreen, so that helped to ease some of the neck pain. Luckily I had some physical conditioning to start with, but eventually I got out of shape. But, like everything in life, we eventually get used to it.
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How many hours do you ride a day? It really depends. When I do ride, let's say that is a minimum of 1 and a half to 13 hours.
Could you maybe do a "what's in my bag"-post, show us the gear, tools and clothing you use and talk a bit about why you chose what? Ok.
Pannier 1 Camping Gear: - Sleeping bag - Air mattress - 3 people tent (I'm a tall guy) - $20 cooking pot set - propane gas tank - pocket knife - foldable chair - water bladder
Pannier 2 Electronics and knick knacks: - 11" laptop - 2 hard drives (backup!!!) - Chargers - portable tyre compressor - spare oil filter - spare front tube - cable ties - duct tape - bungee cords - first aid kit - spare bolts and screws
Tool bag - various moto tools
Duffle bag: - Clothes (various)
Tank Bag: - Drone - Toothbrush - Notepad - Small Lock - Pen
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Did you have any problems with the drone? I remember you told me once on instagram that you planned on visiting Azerbaijan but couldn’t because Azerbaijan closed all the borders. Let me warn you that if you decide to come when borders reopen, know that drones are illegal here. Retarded law I know but you really cannot do anything about it because it is highly enforced. Probably you can give it up in customs and pick it up when you leave Nicaragua is the same. They don't allow drones in their country. I had to send it to costa rica via mail.
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Traveling without a Leatherman. I can't believe it. It s listed. "Pocked knife" ;) You are right...i should have said Leatherman
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What drone do you have? DJI mavic Air.
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I have a CB600F I've fitted panniers to and can't fathom how you got all that camping stuff into one pannier, your packing skills must be sick I got some pretty roomy panniers too. Giant Loop is actually a company from Oregon, USA that makes these spectacular bags. Www.giantloopmoto.com I ve been riding with their products for years now.
Well nobody has asked it yet.. How did you self sustain yourself for so long? I understand everything is cheaper in South America but you also went through North America. In north America, specifically in USA, I had some friends that helped me finding accommodation along the way. I also wild camped a lot. Froze my arse up couple of nights too... But It's doable in Canada and USA since the land is so vast and you can always find a place to pitch your tent in safety.
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See my trouble always begins when I pitch a tent I used to be the same, mate!
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Maybe I'm just jaded but I don't know of anywhere you can just pitch a tent and sleep in the woods. Everywhere I've ever been camping there's an 80 dollar fee and you get a designated campground. Download iOverlander.
Hi, sorry if this is a personal question, but how often did you get laid? Do cultural differences play a role? Personal question, but interesting nonetheless. Thanks for asking "sensibly".
When travelling from town to town it's easy to meet people. The common Idea is that travellers get laid a lot. Unfortunately, in my case, I do not go out much when I travel, so my social encounters are limited to the location where I end up spending the night. I also typically stay not longer than a day or two, which is also usually not enough to create a connection with a potential partner (in my case). A lot of women are indeed attracted by the "solitary wolf" riding a motorcycle around the world, but they are not generally inclined to have a one night experience. Hence, the answer to your question, is that I rarely get laid. Cultural differences are what make mating interesting though. One trait that is standard for your part of the world, could be extremely exotic in another. Sometimes even the accent in which you speak a foreign language, could be a favourable factor.
But at the end, beauty is in the eyes of the beholder.
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Dai ammettilo che l'accento italiano aiuta. Storia interessante la tua. Ti auguro il meglio! Sorry guys.. Italian things going on here ( shakes hands in the air ) Un pochino aiuta! ;) cheers!
How did you deal with language barriers? In all latin america the most spoken language is Spanish. I struggled at the beginning but after the first month, I had a decent basic level that allowed me to communicate quite easily with the locals. In Brazil was hard again, since portuguese was completely new for me. But again, after 1 month I got used to it and I was able to have basic conversations. If you give yourself enough time, you'll pick up any language.
In other situations I used my english or sometimes, like recently in Greece, Google Translate. Works beautifully!
Is it true that Italian and Spanish go hand in hand? I had some friends from Mexico who were confident that they could pick up Italian if they lived in Italy and were forced to use it every day for a month or 2. There are different and discordant opinions about this. I personally believe that Italian and Spanish are VEEEEERY similar. I think that any spanish speaker could easily pick on italian if spending some time in the country. And viceversa. But I also met people that thought otherwise. Not sure why. It wasn't too complex for me to pick up spanish. Definitely not perfect, but way better than a native english speaker.
What was the coolest thing you saw? Hard to pinpoint one single thing. Saw so many incredible things in 5 years! Nature always strucks me the most. Some places leave you speechless. Some encounters too. But the coolest experience for me was to swim with marine wildlife in Australia and Ecuador.
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Hey I from Ecuador! Glad you enjoyed the wildlife. Can you elaborate on your experience there? Did you visit the Galapagos islands? Ecuador is hands down my favorite country...for its people, for nature, for food, roads...i mean, i had a fantastic time there. I also visited Galapagos and It was one of the highlights...of my life!! I mean...wow. simply incredible. If there was ever a place on earth close to Jurassic Park...
How does your license work? I mean if you have a drivers license in one country and you drive through multiple countries. What happens if you get pulled over? Having European or Australian driver license is sufficient to drive in most foreign countries. I do have an International Driver License, which is simply a piece of paper you can request from your local Automobile Club, that translates your license in many languages and which is helpful when finding an "scrutinous" policeman. At the borders they never check your driving license.
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What about the motorbike's papers? Did you need a carnet de passage ? And could you tell us about the shipping of the bike, plane or boat, expense, level of organisation needed? For the americas, you don't need CdP. The shipping of bike could be done by cargo ship or plane. Both are not cheap but quite feasible. There are agencies that usually take care of the paperwork for you. A simple google search could help you pinpoint some good info. Unfortunately because rules and prices change from country to country, prices have to be requested to the company you choose. It is usually around $1500 + to ship a motorcycle indicatively...for both sea or air freight.
Can you speak on your base knowledge of bikes at the start of your travels? I'm interested in purchasing a bike to cruise around America in once (if) this pandemic blows over. Did you ever have to do any emergency DIY work when you couldnt make it to a garage for professuonal repairs? First of all: DO IT!! it's an amazing experience. I had basic/zero motorcycle mechanical skills when I started. I often used youtube as a source of "inspiration". Now I rather do the job myself than taking my bike into a shop. If you are going to cruise around the US, you wont need to carry much spares, since you can buy and have most parts shipped wherever you are. Somehow even breaking down, if happens, is a great part of the overall adventure.
[deleted] I am not sure. Yet. Definitely the more I go on with this adventure (and life) the more I become aware of myself and my surroundings. I am looking forward to have somehow a peaceful life in harmony with my surroundings. Stress has been out of my life for a while now and I want to keep it this way. Don't have a family. Never had kids or wives. I think it's going to stay this way...but you never know.
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You've been doing this 5 years now. Do you feel the need to keep moving after you've been somewhere for a few days? How long is the longest you've been stationary since staring and did you ever feel like you wanted to get off the road for a longer time. Well...yes I always feel the need to see something more and explore. I get bored easily. But I have to say that during my Lockdown in Greece I was absolutely at peace. I really enjoyed my down time and i took advantage of it by taking care of many little things i left behind.
Did you tend to keep to yourself most of the time, or would you go out to meet people and socialize with the locals in the area? I am not really a "social beast" anymore. I socialize in hostels and when I look for food mostly...but I don't go out at night. That is quite personal, but I prefer a quiet night than pubs. This allowed me somehow to save a lot of money in the long run. I may have missed out in "social opportunities", but I prefer this way.
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But you did meet a lot of people right? Im not social at all and it keeps me from traveling, im afraid that it would ruin the experience if I dont click with anyone haha. You gave me some confidence this will be a smaller problem than I think it is. I am an introvert and generally speaking, kind of a geek. So yeah...not really the outgoing kind of guy...but, when travelling alone, you don't have that social pressure anymore. You are by yourself and there's nothing to tell you what you have or not have to do. you are free. And yes...you will meet tons of people!!
Where do you stay at (camping, airbnb, rental, etc) ? Where you get money from? What do you usually carry with you? What is you most essential item? Have you made many friends? I mostly stay in Hostels (when is cheap enough). In latin America, you can pay from $5-$10 for a night in a shared dorm. When in remote areas, I camp. Best thing ever. Otherwise I use Couchsurfing. Occasionally I stay with friends and/or other bikers that got to know my story and want to help out. I live off my own savings. Most essential Item is "Common sense". AKA try not to do extremely stupid things. :)
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How far do you usually have to plan ahead to find couchsurfing accommodations? The one thing that has deterred me from trying it out is that my motorcycle trips almost never stick to the schedule I have planned. Either due to unforeseen circumstances or maybe just deciding to ride around an area longer. Have you given people on CS a range of dates/times that you would arrive, or do you have to have your arrivals planned thoroughly? Yes, you usually have to investigate one or two weeks ahead to find accommodation with couchsurfing. Especially because I am a single guy. If i was a girl, i could find somewhere to sleep in few hours. Ahah. Oh well, women are less threatening i guess! ;) But yeah. You do need to check first and give a rough estimate of days of your permanence. Typically 2-3 days is the max. Then if both parties are ok, you can extend.
Have you ever done any housesitting for accommodation? I've done smaller trips like this, staying in hostels and campsites. I've heard of housesitting more recently and once I go again I'm thinking of trying it out. When looking at listings though it almost seems to good to be true. I just wonder if there is a catch to it I ve never done housesitting specifically. But I ve used HelpX, Workaway, woofing, etc to find occasional gigs that allowed me to get accommodation in return of small jobs. In Greece i stayed in a 9 apts complex on the beach by myself, in exchange of cleaning and painting! Great deal indeed
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If you were a woman, there would also be far more risks to couch surfing alone. I'd definitely prefer planning over higher risk of sexual assault. Women have more chances of getting hosted because there are a lot of women hosts too. Or couples. They are definitely more willing to host a woman. But i get your point
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Thanks, got another question. What is enough savings for a year in Latin America? well, it really depends of what kind of lifestyle you want. If you are ok sleeping in hostels every night and eating cheap market food...doesn't really take much! depending on which countries you want to visit too and how you want to move around! you can do it hitchhiking too if you want! and that won't cost you a thing! Just time!
How did you manage to not have your motorcycle stolen? Common sense. Mostly parked inside or in "safe areas" when possible. You can never be 100% sure but I never had issues of sort in my 5 years of travelling. Actually somebody stole my tool bag in Vancouver, Canada.
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As a Canadian id like to say “sorry”. apologies accepted! ;)
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As a Vancouverite, I'm not surprised. We have a large homeless population and they target anything they can find to steal and sell. It wasn't a homeless guy per se...was definitely a junkie. I went to Hastings street 3 days in a row to see if i could find my stuff...but it was gone. Bummer.
how were the first few months without the things that you were used to having? (sorry for the bad english, it isn't my main language) Your english is fine, mate! First month was HARD! 😅 I had never camped in my life and the longest moto trip I took by that time was only 350km. So yeah, in the beginnings the learning curve was steep! Basic things like "where to sleep at night every night" or "how to store food" were kind of abstract concepts for me. My first night camping was also my first night on the road. It was horrible. I paid so much money to camp in a so so campground, with noisy and drunk neighbors. It also rained at night. Haha An absolute fail! It got better and better with time. Also looking for food, packing and taking care of the bike. It was a full immersion in a brand new lifestyle for me. A great experience indeed
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Paolo, your first night camping sounds ... well, it sounds really terrible! I'm curious how you would compare that first inexperienced night with say... an average night camping somewhere, anywhere, I don't know... say 2-4 years later after having done it for a while. In which ways did that first inexperienced night of camping come to differ from your more seasoned camping night to night later on? What kinds of routines did you end up falling into on those nights that you picked up from years of experience having done it? Well...let's just say that my love for camping escalated quickly as well. I started camping in the wild...not in confined facilities, and I simply loved it. Sitting quietly in front of the fire at night, after a long day riding, watching the stars appear slowly in the sky... The silence. I learned that camping in a busy campsite, with kids screaming and music playing is not the kind of camping I was looking for. Surely is great for families, because usually it is a safe environment for kids to play in, but for solo travellers looking for some quiet downtime...it is not. Better to hide somewhere behind a tree or some bushes and have a quiet night with some privacy. Free of charge.
How badly do you stink? Joking of course, good luck with your adventures. If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound? ;)
Not to be nosey but what would qualify as enough money to "sustain yourself for a while"? And how long do you consider that "a while" to be? I had no Idea how much It would cost me to live, travel and not work, since I had never done it before. But I knew how much It costed me to live in Sydney for a year, without any extras (just food, accommodation, rent and bills). I assumed initially that my trip around the world would have lasted a maximum of 1 year and a half. Was I wrong! I pretty much had saved $40k in 5 years of work.
Thanks for doing this! How much do you talk to strangers? I can imagine either being very sociable, or taking the opportunity to be more solitary. Also, when you were traveling the world, how specifically did you keep in contact with friends and family back home? Was one service/approach more effective than another? I love to talk with Locals!! It's the best thing! I love to talk with older people especially. They can really give you a better perspective about the place and overall more interesting stories about their lives. Sometimes there's a language barrier but I try regardless. Hostels are also a great place to meet friends and people from all over the world. Aside from this, travelling solo on a motorcycle or bicycle naturally attracts curiosity, so I also met some good friends of mine at gas stations or random rest areas in the middle of nowhere.
To keep in touch with family and friends nowadays is quite easy. Mobile data networks are excellent worldwide and you can buy local sim cards to use local carriers data traffic. I use whatsapp and fb messenger the most.
What kind of income are you receiving to sustain this lifestyle long-term? Living off my life savings. I am self supported. Just worked for few years, saving as much as I could and then took off.
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That sounds epic... Met a few guys like that, but never had the balls to do so myself. If you read this: how much of a mechanic are you? Do you do stuff yourself of do you bring your bike to the shop for maintenance/tires? At the beginning I wasn't really able to do much on my bike, except changing brake pads maybe. Then I tried and read forums online about troubleshooting...and of course youtube mate!! I tend to have a mechanic change my tyres, since it's a hell of a job and takes 4 minutes with proper machines. you can find tyre mechanics literally EVERYWHERE.
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But, with the estimate you gave it would cost like 9k usd per year to maintain that lifestyle. You’ve been doing it for 5 years. I guess it’s hard for a lot of Americans to imagine saving up 45k+ in the few years that you worked. trust me, It's even harder for an italian to conceive to save up 40k in 5 years of work. Most italians will be able to save that amount maybe in 10-15 years. That's why I quit my job in italy and moved to Australia, where salaries are way higher. It's just sad that I had to leave my family, friends and country to be able to have a better life.
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Why dont you try to register for welfare in Australia, and get the welfare cheques deposited into your account? I thought about it while riding around Australia. But I didn't find it fair. I mean, I wasn't in need of cash to sustain my living and there were probably people who seriously did. Plus I think you have to show up for interviews and stuff...so I preferred to let go.
OP, you're doing what I've dreamed of doing since I was about 21... I'm 32 now. I've saved a bit of money, and have no debt, and am still considering it... but feel as though it would be irresponsible at this point? shrugs I have a few questions, Ever considered staying at a spot for a few weeks and doing some manual labor for extra scratch to help you along in your travels? Ever had any problem with weird parasites in some of your rougher spots (scabies, bedbugs, intestinal issues) such as cheap hostels and whatnot? Since you don't go to bars or anything like that, what's the easiest way for you to meet new people? Ever felt any "I'm about to get robbed" vibes while on the road? Did you make rules like not traveling too late, etc.. I'm considering doing this very thing, since I make a good living but am already a minimalist and don't really need anything... I don't care about owning a house, or having nice clothes or any of that nonsense. I suppose it'd just be a drag to hit a dead end, have to return to the workforce after a few years of traveling and finding myself unable to secure a decent gig again. Anyways, if you've read this, thanks for your time and thanks for doing this AMA! Good luck man, and stay safe. Mate, when I left for my first trip around Australia, I was 34yo...so I completely understand where you are coming from. It take a bit of time to prepare and commit to this. I highly recommend it though. I stopped occasionally and did some jobs, yes, but were more like small temporary gigs...that paid maybe for a new set of tyres than anything. Still! Once I pressured washed mine trucks for a week in South Australia. Haha i was covered in mudd but I was happy. I also cleaned few apartments in greece in exchange of accommodation....things like that. Things will come your way if you look hard enough.
Didn't have any problems with bugs or parasites no. Got lucky on this one i guess. But i do believe I built my immune system pretty well.
The easiest way to meet people is in hostels. Being in your 30s you are already on the "old side" for a hostel, but you are still ok. ;) haha
Sometimes yes i felt i was going to get robbed or mugged...but never happened. I never travel with cameras and other expensive items with me. When i am on the bike, there s always the "surprise effect", meaning that people are more shocked to see somebody travelling solo than tempted to rob him right away.
How has the pandemic altered any future travel plans? The pandemic changed things quite drastically. A lot of other travellers I know got stuck somewhere or had to cancel their plans until further notice. Still not sure what to do in the long terms. Covid definitely made everything more unpredictable.
What are the cheapest and best places you would suggest a young person go visit? Also, just out of curiosity, when do you think you’ll stop? Well, there are plenty of great places to go explore on a tight budget. Latin America and South East Asia are generally speaking quite cheap. I would recommend Bolivia or Peru, in SA...and Cambodia in SEA. As a start...
I Hope I will be able to go on for few more years...but so far I am pretty content with what I've done already.
How do you overcomevia issues? I believe you referred to "Visa issues"?!
Well, having an Italian passport is quite handy since you get visa on arrival (valid for 1-3 months) as a tourist in most of the countries in the world. I had to request and pay for my Russian and Mongolian visa though. You can request that 1-2 weeks before entry in any available Embassy.
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And what about other practical stuff like insurance for the motorcycle(is it allowed to be abroad for such a long time ?) ? Maybe obligatory x-yearly technical vehicle inspections (so far not needed in a lot of european countries but about to change so you were lucky I guess) ? Official site of residence (or what is it called, it is really hard to be 'homeless' in some countries, probably depends on what your current 'home country' is ) ? Ok so, insurance for motorcycle is something you need to get every time you enter a new country. Some insurance companies will insure foreign vehicles, but it isn't always the case. My bike is australian so after a certain point you need to inspect the vehicle to renew the registration. There is a process through which you can go to an associated mechanic in the country where you are and have the vehicle inspected and the results sent to the Australian motorvehicle authority. Then you can renew your papers online and have the new registration sent to you overseas. My official country of residence is still Australia, because it is where I want to go back to.
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Thanks for the response. I can imagine it is not the most interesting thing to talk about but I am planning on doing something similar with a van + motorcycle (that fits in the van) combo so I am super interested in hearing about the (boring) administrative side of someone who is actually doing it :D. I had no idea something was possible like the remote inspection, I hope something similar exists in my country too. So far I only read you have to go to inspection asap when returning to your country if you were abroad. But I can imagine that is not going to fly if you plan on being away for a very long time though :P. Also: did you happen to keep a list of insurance companies that were willing to do it ? In that sense things change rapidly and new and better companies may arise. Better check with locals or use iOverlander app to find these kind of info.
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2020.09.06 16:18 CesarRomeroAr What is Google Crowdsource?

What is Google Crowdsource?
Google Crowdsource, also known as Crowdsource, Crowdsource by Google, Community Collaboration and Contributor by Google, is a crowdsourcing platform developed by Google and aimed at improving many of its services through the training of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms, with the help of volunteer users. This training, which Google points out as micro-tasks that should take no more than 5-10 seconds to complete, allows the AI to learn new skills and study a large amount of information that enhances its ability to be implemented in the various tools that the company offers (Google Translate, Maps, Fotos, Assistant, among other).

https://preview.redd.it/0x9tu15jojl51.png?width=512&format=png&auto=webp&s=51f1cc5cdb589325042aa8e5c17b25aeef55ccce
Crowdsource was developed and launched for the Android operating system in the official Google Play store, as well as in its web version, on August 29, 2016. This platform includes several short tasks that users can complete in order to sophisticate and enhance many of Google's services. These tasks include image tag verification, comment feeling evaluation and translation validation among other tasks. By completing these tasks, users provide Google with valuable data for algorithm training and service improvement. As users complete tasks, they earn achievements and recognitions that include statistics, credentials and certificates, as well as differentiated tracking of their progress by task in a User World Scoreboard (participation in this scoreboard is optional).
Tasks
At launch, the Crowdsource application presented users with 5 different tasks: image transcription, handwriting recognition, translation, translation validation and map translation validation. The latest version of the application includes 7 tasks in its mobile version and 8 in its web version.
The mobile mode of the project includes the following functions:
Smart Camera: It consists of a smart camera that detects objects and provides an overview of them. The user then has to tell the function whether the description given is correct or not.
Verification of image labels: The user must indicate if the label presented to him can be the one indicated or not for the photograph that is perceived in a random way in the chosen category.
Sentimental analysis: It presents the user with various reviews and comments so that he can classify them according to his opinion as "positive", "neutral" or "negative". Also, as an alternative, the user can skip a question if they are not sure and move on to the next one. These reviews by Crowdsource users help a variety of recommendation-based technologies that Google uses on platforms such as Google Maps, Google Play Store and YouTube.
Handwriting recognition: Handwriting recognition involves users reading handwritten words and transcribing them into text. As explained by Google, completing this task helps improve the handwriting feature of the Google Keyboard.
Translation and Validation of translations: Translation-related tasks (translation and translation validation) are only shown to users who have selected more than one language in which they are fluent. While map translation validation is no longer a task in Crowdsource, users can still complete translation and translation validation tasks. Translation presents the user with one of the languages in which they are fluent, and asks them to translate it into another language in which they are also fluent. Translation validation presents users with a list of translations submitted by other users, and asks them to categorize them as correct or incorrect. Both tasks help improve the translation capabilities of Google, especially in Google Translate, and any other Google application that has translated content, including Google Maps.
Image capture: This function allows you to take photos or upload them from the gallery and share them in open source for free use on the Internet with precise tags describing the content of the photo.
Google Crowdsource - Mobile Version
The web mode in turn provides the following functions:
Verification of image labels: Same function as in the mobile version. VIEW!
Image legend: Allows you to validate or invalidate image captions that may be linked to the photograph being displayed. VIEW!
Handwriting recognition: Same function as in the mobile version. VIEW!
Reference points: This function allows you to indicate whether the reference point indicated corresponds to the image presented. This task is designed to help ensure that businesses and landmarks are recognisable on applications such as Google Maps, Google Street View, etc. VIEW!
Facial expressions: It allows you to analyze human face expressions in YouTube videos and then tell the application what kind of expression is detected. VIEW!
Translation and Translation Validation: Same function as in the mobile version.
Assistance Tutor: It allows you to show the Google virtual assistant how people could speak to you in your language.
Google Crowdsource - Web Version
Achievements
Crowdsource has a "Achievements" section that shows the Statistics and Badges that the user gets by completing various tasks. Among these, the level at which the user is according to his contribution flow stands out. These range from Level 1 to Level 18.
Recently, a League Table was added that shows the progress of partners worldwide in each of the application's functions. VIEW!
Statistics
Crowdsource tracks the total user contributions to the project and displays them on a counter, as well as metrics that provide a balance of responses in line with overall community responses synthesized in a section called "Votes in favour" and "Accuracy" that shows the degree of accuracy or validity of user responses.
Badges
As users complete tasks, they also receive Badges. There are badges for each type of task, which denote progress through that particular task (such as translation validation), as well as badges for other milestones, such as completing a given task through a notification.
Languages
Crowdsource is currently available in the following languages: Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Assamese, Azerbaijani, Bahasa (Indonesia), Bahasa (Malay), Basque, Belarusian, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Cantonese, Burmese, Catalan, Cebuano, Cherokee, Chichewa, Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Corsican, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Dzongkha, English, Estonian, Esperanto, Finnish, French, French (Canada), Frisian, Galician, Georgian, German, Greek, Gujarati, Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Hindi, Hmong, Hungarian, Icelandic, Igbo, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Khmer, Kinyarawanda, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji), Kurdish (Sorani), Kirghiz, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Luxembourgish, Macedonian, Malagasy, Malayalam, Maltese, Maori, Marathi, Mongolian, Nepali, Norwegian, Oriya, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Romansh, Russian, Samoan, Scots Gaelic, Serbian (Cyrillic script), Serrano, Sesotho, Shona, Sicilian, Sindhi, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Sundanese, Swahili, Swedish, Tajik, Tamazight, Tagalog/Filipino, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Thai, Tibetan, Turkish, Turkmen, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh, Wolof, Xhosa, Yiddish, Yoruba and Zulu.
Data
Much of the images donated by users have been compacted by Google and made available to the general public for access and download from the Crowdsource by Google and Open Images Dataset platforms. To date, the platforms have approximately 90 GB of 478,000 images distributed in sets of 10 x 8.80 GB for easy downloading.
Community and project blog
Recently the project team launched two pages, one for the Crowdsource Community where they present stories and experiences of users and influencers of the same, and finally a blog in development which will provide updates and news related to the world Crowdsource.
Technical data, content and privacy policies
- The application requires for its installation Android 4.3 and later versions.
- Application size: 44 Megabyte.- Mobile data usage: VIEW!
- How does Google use my answers? VIEW!
- What are the content policies of the project? VIEW!
- What are Google's Privacy Policies? VIEW!
- Frequently Asked Questions: VIEW!

More information about the project: About Crowdsource by Google
If you want to know more about Google's Artificial Intelligence, you can follow the industry blog and get to know this technology: AI Google Blog!
submitted by CesarRomeroAr to u/CesarRomeroAr [link] [comments]


2020.09.02 04:32 Bash_time Have you heard of “Throat Singing”?

Covid has made this one hell of a year. My apartment complex once filled with 9-5’ers is now filled with people on covid leave. Fortunately enough I’ve been able to work through this whole pandemic as an essential worker. I think I’d go crazy if I had to stay home the past few months.
One silver lining I’ve had through all of this is my next door neighbors moved. I was so excited that they finally were leaving. All they did was party all night. To be fair, who’s to blame them? They were on leave, but it was tampering with my sleep schedule. No matter how many times I’d stop by and catch their smug hungover excuses and apologies, the partying never stopped. Finally the silence had myself and others in the complex more than content.. but I surely miss the neighbors now.
Shortly after the couple left I saw a truck piled with boxes. New neighbors! The social butterfly that I am, I couldn’t wait to meet them. Honestly, mostly hoping they were friendly enough to let me sleep through the night.
I stepped onto my small balcony, lit up a cigarette, and waved to the new pair. They were both tall and slim individuals. The man seemed clean cut, you know, the cubical worker kind of guy. The girl on the other hand seemed like she had just left tour with a metal band. I can’t imagine they’re a couple? Maybe friends.
“Hey there! Moving into apartment 226?”
The girl replied “We sure are!”
“Looks like you guys are my new neighbors! I’m Jarrod!”
The girl smiled back at me, introduced me as Lola, and honestly even from a distance I could tell she was immaculate. Long black hair, white smile that escaped around her black lipstick. I’d be lying if I said I wasn’t smitten a little bit.
“Its a pleasure meeting you Jarrod, we can’t wait to get to know you, but we are opting to quarantine for 14 days since we moved from out of state.”
The man accompanying her looked at me while Lola and I exchanged a few more words, but never said anything. Oh well. Maybe they are dating? Could be the jealous type.
A little sad my neighbors weren’t going to be available for a proper meeting, but I understood. I heard them settling into their new place, and only hoped that they would be quiet after-hours.
Turns out they are very silent after all! In a way I was expecting a little more noise from someone who looked the way Lola did. The only noise I ever heard from their place was at around 7 pm. Have you ever heard of throat singing? It’s actually really impressive. I think they’re fans of Mongolian culture. I can appreciate it too. Especially because it ended Abruptly around 9:26 pm every night.
A couple days in I realized that, there wasn’t any groceries on their moving load so I knocked one day and asked if they needed me to get them any food or supplies. Lola behind replied that they were all set. It was nice to hear her voice. For some reason I hated the barrier of the door between us. I didn’t even know this girl and I was jealous of the maybe-boyfriend that got to spend so much time with her.
The two weeks went by far faster than I had noticed. Work was busy, as a guard at the local hospital I can say that this is almost the busiest I’ve ever seen it. This helped time speed along. All the while, I couldn’t help, but count down the days of seeing Lola in person.
The 13th night before their self quarantine was over I heard something different in the throat sounds. A second voice was throat singing. At first it was hard to tell because it matched the volume of the music, but eventually it got louder and louder. I partially wondered how who I only could assume was the guy, took times breathing in between the tone changes. Eventually it sounded like the singer next door was in pain. Struggling to keep going. I was worried so I knocked on the door.
“Is everything okay in there?”
Muffled over the sounds of forced throat singing I could hear Lolas voice.
“Everything’s fine okay? I’m excited to meet you. I’ll come over when you get home from work okay?”
That eased my mind. I was finally going to be able to get to know Lola! I returned to my flat to shave my face and look tip-top for tomorrow.
I was surprised to hear the throat singing continue after 9:26 tonight, the music had stopped yet the throat singing went on until it gently ended right around 10:26 this time. If thats their form of late night partying, I’m okay with it!
Work was slow today and I was eager to get back home. It was like I was counting every second that went by. Once 5 pm hit I punched out and was on my way to see the lovely Lola.
Lola came by alone. I asked where the guy was and she told me he had opted to another 14 day quarantine. I found it strange, but maybe he doesn’t feel well. I don’t mind the one-on-one with her.
We ate dinner and drank wine together. Shared stories. Its almost like I’ve known this girl for so long.
These hours felt like days with her. I felt tired, yet we kept talking for what felt like the longest, yet best night of my life. Then I mentioned the throat singing.
Her eyes lit up and she asked me if I wanted to hear some of her cd’s she had burned of her favorite throat singing tracks. Of course I was eager to keep her here. She stepped out of the apartment to go grab her cds.
Then I decided to go and grab a snack. I’m not one to eat super late, but hey, I was drunk and wanted to get a little bit of carbs in me.
I opened the fridge and almost threw up. Everything I had bought yesterday was rotten. I was confused and grabbed my phone to see how late it really was. It was only 6:58 pm but what really horrified me was that it was 13 days later. I had notifications from my boss, my family, and my friends. All wondering what was going on.
How has all this time passed?
knock knock
Lolas back.
submitted by Bash_time to nosleep [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 12:06 Machine_Familiar Height

For mongolian girls, is 5 ft 7 enough for a guy to have successful dating life in Mongolia? I am 18 and only 5 ft 7 while it seems like everyone is over 6 ft
submitted by Machine_Familiar to mongolia [link] [comments]


2020.08.25 16:47 jeandanjou Future Three Kingdoms DLC Possibilities

Someone had a post here about what they wanted/expected for Three Kingdoms DLC in the future, and I've thought hard and long about it.
I decided to come up with my own timeline to what we're possibly getting, and since I've ended up quite please with it I wanted to share it to hear both any criticism, ways to add more things to it or correct anything wrong, and above all, see your own ideas and wants. Thus:
Guandu:
Yuan Shao as a Playable faction with his son's also being playable and having a Priam's Heir mechanic (for players only). Would complete the missing notables of the early period, with Yuan Shao getting 4-6 Uniques, Cao Cao getting Cao Ren and Yu Jin as Uniques, Liu Bei gets special horde mechanics maybe? Liu Biao gets some uniques as well. Yuan Shao (and sons) and Cao Cao will be the focus.
Yuan Shao and Cao Cao get their mechanics revamped to better fit the new changes, while Yuan Shao brothers share a Heir mechanic + their own mechanic.
Zhang Xiu FLC (it's a coin toss wether they make him a main part of the DLC or FLC. I'm betting on a large focus on Cao Cao and Yuan Shao, so FLC it is).
Destiny or Ambition as the main theme.
199 start date.
Obs.: Guandu was heavily hinted in A World Betrayed, with Yuan Shao and Cao Cao conflict foreshadowed, Yuan Shao getting two new notables (still generic) with all four of his notables having a very important role in the novel's version of Guandu, the Behind the Scenes for AWB having the Developer directly name-drop the battle as a must addition in the Future DLC video (from March), and the developers saying that after Nanman there would be a Chapter Pack.

Northern Expansion Pack:
Qiang, Xianbei (led by Kebineg or Tuoba Linwei), Xiongnu (led by Yufuluo) and Wuhan (led by Tadun). Each faction will play differently, with Yufuluo being wanting to reform his motherland, having Mercenary contracts; the Wuhan being basically the Shamoke of the North; the Xianbei being a raiding, sacking and razing focused faction, very aggressive; dunno about the Qiang but as pointed out, they're not actually a Nomad Mongolian people but Tibetan Herders/Farmers so they'd need to be somewhat distinct.
There was a lot of intersection between the Northern tribes. The Xianbei and Wuhan were the same people, but different offshots politically speaking, while the vast majority of the Xiongnu people migrated and joined the Xianbei mostly and the Wuhan second. This gives them a natural common roster, while the Qiang are already half implemented due to the Qiang province rebellion and Ma Teng units.
Inner Mongolia and the start of the western protectorate would be added (basically, a part of the Gansu Corridor, maybe even have a special mechanic for the Protectorate itself, but I don't that they will expand that far West), while Liang Province will be populated by the Qiang. Probably some massive changes in the north and Northwest.
We might even see them adapted as the Five Barbarians for the 8 Princes DLC to finally get something interesting. I don't expect more than the Qiang and Di being the same while the Jie replace the Wuhan.
Han Sui as FLC
Obs.: Yufuluo is already directly referenced in the game, Tuoba Linwei is also in the game as a generic. This Expansion was already confirmed as coming "soonish" since they're leaving fixing Mount Song to it. Meanwhile, Kenbineng was a powerful leader that Cao Cao defeated, and who has a relatively famous passage in the novel where he flees in fear when he discover he's facing the Mighty Ma Chao, whom he knew the reputation of from the Qiang in his army. Tadun was an important Wuhan King and one of Yuan Shao's main allies, and who then also allied with Yuan Shao's sons to defeat Cao Cao, but were instead defeated in the Battle of White Wolf Mountain. From then on the Wuhan became a Wei puppet, as, in de Crespigny words, they "ceased to be an independent entity" - White Wolf Mountain Battle and the Wuhan also get referenced in a bandit tech.

Chibi:
Sun Quan faction will debut here, since I think Guandu will start just before Sun Ce's Death, and CA will want to have a DLC that properly focus on Sun Quan to introduce him and his faction mechanics, although this does open up what to do with Sun Ce, since his AWB mechanic won't work here.
I'm betting that we won't see a Tong Pass + Yi Province Invasion DLC, which I also think it's unnecessary due to almost no changes between 208-211 except less faction variety and Liu Bei starting an invasion that can be perfectly added as an event chain in the Chibi pack. Thus, I think we will see Ma Chao as the other main focus of the DLC, since he's the other new faction in place possible and would be a good team with Sun Quan go grab attention.
Liu Bei gets his mechanic overhauled. By now the Han Empire faction should be tiny, and regardless, Unity is a very simplistic mechanic that should be overhauled. Since there'd be no 211 start, this is the best opportunity to do this and add his Yi Province invasion quest chain.
Zhang Lu or Liu Zhang as FLC.
Revenge as the main theme (Ma Chao against Cao Cao and Sun Quan against Huang Zu, maybe Liu Biao and others).
208 Start date.

The Baiyue (the One Hundred Yue) Tribes Culture Pack:
The Yue lands right now a big empty spot, and they Yue as a faction are already partially implemented thanks to Yan Baihu. They'd offer more variety for a relatively simpler addition and work than a full Expansion Pack, and would finally plug the last empty spot of abandoned commanderies (I'm presuming the Northern Expansion Pack plugged the one in the Ordos).
They were a very naval people, having a standing navy and relying heavily in fishing, so who knows what CA will do with them. We might see the addition of Marshlands and Wet terrain here.
They were also famous for having short hair, extensive tattoos and fine swords and swordmanship, which is very useful for distinct units with striking visuals, always a nice attractive to get players interested.
Yan Baihu is already in the game or else he'd be the obvious choice of FLC. He will likely see an overhaul anyway.
This will be a culture pack, so akin to what we got with the Yellow Turbans pre-order DLC, and not the Expansion Packs.
Post Chibi would be ideal, because 207-208 is when Sun Quan started conquering then. This would go on for a decade.
We'd get as FLC either Zhang Lu or Liu Zhang as FLC, maybe (the one who wasn't FLC/DLC in Chibi), or maybe someone else entirely.
Obs: Of all possible DLCs, this is the one I'm least confident about but one I'd really like to see.

Korea Expansion Pack:
Gaya, Baekje, Silla and Goguryeo as playable factions.
Gaya was a confederacy of cities, so it will probably have a distinct mechanic. Goguryeo was the richest and most sinicized of the kingdoms, so we will likely see mechanics that and their ambition. Silla and Baekje are smaller, less developed kingdoms than Goguryeo, and who'd only achieve greater further in time after Goguryeo got severely curtailed by the Chinese, so I expect their mechanics to reflect this desire to take Goguryeos place and have some basis in the things that the kingdoms were famous for in the future.
I'd love to see Hwarang added, as a kind of Chilvary + Samurai thing, even if they're ahistorical for this time period. I know very little about the period to infer more than above, and like with the Trebuchets and Cataphracts, I expect CA to add some out of place units and things to create more colorful and recognizable factions.
This is a DLC that is surely coming in my opinion. The Korean Peninsula is in the game, even if not as proper conquerable region, and we have not one, but two famous wars here, one is Sima Yi's Liaodong Campaign while the other are the Goguryeo-Wei Wars, both pretty large and famous.
There are extensive records of this time (compared to the other cultures at least) and Korean tradition of their own Three Kingdoms period is solid.
Gongsun Du and his family as the FLC is the obvious choice.

Emperor's Edition - the 'proper' Three Kingdoms start:
Cao Pi and Liu Shan are playable, with Sun Quan this gives us Shu, Wei and Wu. Zhuge will likely be locked as Regent/Prime Minister for Shu.
This one is tricky. There's two ways CA can do this in my opinion:
  1. As FLC. It's be modeled after the Imperator Edition for Rome 2. Sun Quan might be locked if you don't own the 208 DLC. There'd be some overhauls for Court mechanics to add some challenge.
  2. As DLC. Same as above, but this time they go really deep into Faction mechanics and court mechanics, add a bunch of vassals who have an ever present risk of rebellion. We will likely see some programmed invasions by the other Kingdoms, and would be interesting to see a Balance Mechanic, kinda like Realm Divided from Shogun 2. Become too strong and the other two Kingdoms will ally and attack you, until the balance is restored or you win. This means you can also use it against an AI Kingdom that got too strong.
New Era as the Main Theme.
223 Start - the starting date is polemic. The Three Kingdoms proper is usually marked as 220, when Cao Cao dies and Cao Pi crowns himself emperor, while Liu Bei crowns himself emperor in 221 and Sun Quan only in 229. But the Three Kingdoms are formally formed earlier, in 222, when Sun Quan declares himself independent 9& Wei. I chose 223 because it'd give us Liu Shan + Zhuge and Cao Pi as their own factions, being the main new factions.
Obs.: 220-222 is basically when the last remnants of the old generation that still remembered the Han Dynasty died. Lü Meng, Liu Bei, Guan Yu, Cao Cao, Xiahou Yuan, Xiahou Dun, Zhang Fei, Ma Chao, Huang Zhong, Yu Jin, Zhang Liao and many others dying during this short interval (others like Lü Su and Yue Jin died shortly before or after).
submitted by jeandanjou to totalwar [link] [comments]


2020.08.23 07:15 rdar1999 ABC: how to move forward - alternatives to IFP

I don't think ABC is the devil incarnated. The desire to correct issuance and give proper funding is absolutely legitimate, but it is being mishandled because ABC won't go ahead and throw the baby with the bathwater. Instead, it is going through a toxic debate and that's just wasteful for everybody and creates more damage.
Now the bathwater can be thrown because the baby is out. There is no need for IFP and drift:
1 - deadalnix should consider a random coin burn, or rather, a "coin shrinkage" of 90% of UTXOs in the new chain; this is to solve all problems with governance at once, and point clearly to a brand-new independent direction;
2 - if he doesn't care about retaining the same holdlers, make that a coin burn at random and use a surprise random date over the UTXO "screenshot" for fairness;
3 - the goal is sha256 minting and PoS validation to some extent, but ideally it should be another algo; a new algo can reward brand-new coin issuance, brand-new validators, including ABC that will mint and validate; what is the use of keeping some small percentage of sha256 just to keep one more fork alive? There is no competition for a new algo;
4 - this new algo can graciously replace sha256 in a scheduled second fork after avalanche remaining UTXO validator pool come to be established (so no troll attack from rented hash); (more on the algo in another opportunity)
5 - coin shrinkage won't hurt value per se (only uncertainty does); quite the contrary, a new scheduling brings back collective mining and funds ABC in the most fair capitalist way in a decentralized setup; ABC can, then, establish a proper foundation from the developer point-of-view to distribute funds (even if it is a hard-coded IFP to some extent);
6 - ABC has no chance to win the exchange-ticker game and there is no need for that, the network effect will still be present if we are talking coin shrinkage and not random burn;
7 - hashwar is dumb, although bitmain has mongolian coal oozing from their pores, ABC own goal is to migrate to PoS for validation, so who cares?
8 - bitmain's stash still expected to be about the same % of the remainder of UTXOs after burn, given proper random selection parameters (hashes perfectly good entropy for a one-time random selection), or just coin shrinkage; the difference is that bitmain is not a perennial major validator, it will retain relevance but will need to issue coins (look point 11);
9 - bitmain's stash illiquid the way things are; the market is not valuing bitmain's stash and a too big stash gets in the way of moving on to a form of PoS validation;
10 - To sum up: new schedule, coin burn and new validation is more or less what everybody wants to do but are simply too afraid to do due to fears of missing out network effect. That has been proposed many times in BTC communities as well in one way or the other. I'd say to ABC, just do it now, the alternative is just another fork with another ticker-war and all that you know.
11 - Finally, I'd also take the opportunity and recalculate the haphazard satoshi coin schedule of 4 year halvings :), talk about a good way to push people to alternative projects because they missed out the first 2 years; this also gives opportunity to other individuals and businesses to grow relevance over time, instead of having a single big entity that has too early a too big share of coins;
ps: As for BCH stashes, they will just remain as they were; in fact, embracing a new fork will give more stability to the now-existing UTXOs than some disgruntled hard fork that, again, no one asked for.
submitted by rdar1999 to btc [link] [comments]


2020.08.22 12:19 EnclavedMicrostate Tartaria: The Supposed Mega-Empire of Inner Eurasia

Introduction

For those not in the know, the Tartaria conspiracy theory is one of the most bizarre pieces of pseudo history out there. Its core notion is that the region known as ‘Tartaria’ or ‘Grand Tartary’ in Early Modern European maps was not simply a vague geographical designate, but in fact a vast, centralised empire. Said empire emerged… at some point, and it disappeared… at some point, but for… some reason, its existence has been covered up to suit… some narrative or another. As you can tell, there’s a lot of diverse ideas here, and the fact that there hasn’t been the equivalent of a Christological schism every time a controversial thread goes up is really quite impressive. While this post will primarily address one particular piece of writing that is at the core of Tartaria conspiracy theorising, I’ll include a few tidbits to show you just how much madness its adherents have come up with. But first, some background.

State of Play, and why I’m doing this

The Tartaria theory has a small but active following on subreddits such as Tartaria, tartarianarchitecture, and CulturalLayer, which as of writing have around 5,300, 2,400 and 23,000 subscribers, respectively, but it’s clear from the 8 questions on the topic asked at AskHistorians since January 2019 and this debunk request from June that it’s a theory that has somewhat broad appeal and can reach beyond its core niche. This is unsurprising given how little education most people in the West receive about basically anything east of Greece: simply put, the reality of Eurasian history is just not something most of us are taught. And if we don’t know the reality of Eurasian history to begin with, or if we do then it's all in bits and pieces where we might not even know a basic set of dates and names, then what seems to be a pretty developed narrative about a lost empire actually turns out rather plausible.
Unfortunately, many debunks of the Tartaria narrative come from people pushing competing conspiracy theories, like this guy claiming that there’s a global Jewish Phoenecian conspiracy and that Tartaria is simply rehashing the notion that Khazars were Jews in order to distract from the real Phoenecian threat at the heart of global society or some nonsense like that. (I don’t really care, I died of laughter after page 3.) Now, there are those coming from serious perspectives, but they focus largely on the problems with Tartaria as a concept rather than addressing the more specific claims being made. This is of course valuable in its own right (shoutout to Kochevnik81 for their responses to the AskHistorians threads), but we can go deeper by really striking at the roots of this ‘theory’ – what is the ‘evidence’ they’re presenting? But to do that, we need to find out what the origins of the ‘theory' are, and thus what its linchpins are. Incidentally, it is because of some recent events regarding those origins that I’ve been finally prompted to write this post.

Where does it come from?

My attempts to find the exact origins of the Tartaria conspiracy have been not entirely fruitful, as the connections I’ve found have been relatively circumstantial at best. But as far as I can tell, it at least partially originates with that Russian pseudohistorian we all know and love, Anatoly Fomenko. Fomenko is perhaps best known in the English-speaking world for his 7-volume ‘epic’ from 2002, History: Fiction or Science?, but in fact he’s been pushing a complete ‘New Chronology’ since the publication of Novaia khronologia in Russian in 1995. While the New Chronology is best known for its attempt to explain away most of the Middle Ages as a hoax created by the Papacy on the basis of bad astronomy, it also asserts a number of things about Russian history from the Kievan Rus’ to the Romanovs. Key to the Tartaria theory is its claim that there was a vast Slavo-Turkic ‘Russian Horde’ based out of ‘Tartaria’ which dominated Eurasia until the last ‘Horde’ ruler, Boris Godunov, was overthrown by the European Mikhail Romanov. This, of course, is a clear attempt at countering the notion of a ‘Tatar Yoke’ over Russia, as you can’t have a ‘Tatar Yoke’ if the Tatars were Russians all along. Much as I’d like to explain that in more detail here, I don’t have to: in 2004, Konstantin Sheiko at the University of Wollongong wrote an entire PhD thesis looking at the claims of Fomenko’s New Chronology and contextualising them within currents of Russian nationalism, which can be accessed online.
But I personally suspect that if there are Fomenko connections as far as Tartaria specifically is concerned, they are limited. For one, at one stage users on the Tartaria subreddit seemed unfamiliar with Fomenko, and there are those arguing that Fomenko had ‘rewritten’ Tartarian history to be pro-Russian. This is why I said that the evidence was circumstantial. The only other link to Fomenko is indirect: the CulturalLayer sidebar lists the ‘New Chronology Resource Collection’ and the audiobook of History: Fiction or Science? under ‘Essential Resources’, and Tartaria in its ‘Related Subs’.
As far as I can tell, the ultimate origin of its developed form on the Anglophone web traces back to this post on the StolenHistory forums, posted on 17 April 2018. This makes some chronological sense: only one post on CulturalLayer that mentions Tartaria predates this. Moreover, KorbenDallas, the OP of the thread, was also the forum’s chief admin, and given that StolenHistory is still (as of writing) the top resource on CulturalLayer’s sidebar, that suggests significant influence. However, using the search function on camas.reddit.io, it was mentioned at least 9 times before then, with the first mention, on 10 January 2018, mentioning that the ‘theory’ had been doing the rounds on the Russian web for at least 5 years. Nevertheless, as the detail in these early comments is sparse and generally refers only to speculation about maps, it is probably fair to say that the first in-depth English-language formulation of the Tartaria ‘theory’ was thus the April 2018 forum post. Funnily enough, it is not cited often on Tartaria, but that subreddit was created on 27 December, long after discussion had been taking place on places like CulturalLayer, and combined with the ‘mudflood’ ‘theory’ and the notion of giant humans, which are not significant features of the StolenHistory thread. This more convoluted and multifaceted version of the Tartaria theory doesn’t really have a single-document articulation, hence me not covering it here.
It is this StolenHistory thread which I will be looking at here today. Not just because it seems to be at the heart of it all, but also because it got shut down around 36 hours ago as of writing this post, based on the timestamps of panicked ‘what happened to StolenHistory’ posts on CulturalLayer and Tartaria. So what better occasion to go back to the Wayback Machine’s version, seeing as it’s now quite literally impossible to brigade the source? Now as I’ve said, this is not the most batshit insane it gets for the Tartaria crowd, in fact it’s incredibly tame. But by the end of it, I bet you’ll be thinking ‘if this is mild, how much more worse is the modern stuff!?’ And the best part is, I can debunk most of it without recourse to any other sources at all, because so much of it involves them posting sources out of context or expecting them to be read tendentiously.
But that’s enough background. Let us begin.

Part 1: The Existence

Exhibit 1: The Encylcopædia Britannica, 1771

”Tartary, a vast country in the northern parts of Asia, bounded by Siberia on the north and west: this is called Great Tartary. The Tartars who lie south of Muscovy and Siberia, are those of Astracan, Circassia, and Dagistan, situated north-west of the Caspian-sea; the Calmuc Tartars, who lie between Siberia and the Caspian-sea; the Usbec Tartars and Moguls, who lie north of Persia and India; and lastly, those of Tibet, who lie north-west of China.” - Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. III, Edinburgh, 1771, p. 887.
Starting a post about the ‘hidden’ history of Central Asia with an encyclopædia entry from Scotland is really getting off to a good start, isn’t it? Anyone with a sense of basic geography can tell you that Tibet lies due west of China, not northwest. But more importantly, this shows you how single-minded the Tartaria advocates are and how tendentiously they read things. ‘Country’ need not actually refer to a state entity, it can just be a geographical space, especially in more archaic contexts such as this. Moreover, the ethnographic division of the ‘Tartars’ into Astrakhanis, Circassians, Dagestanis, Kalmuks, Uzbeks, and, for whatever reason, Tibetans, pretty clearly goes against the notion of a unified Tartary.
Now compare to the description given by Wikipedia, ”Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.”
Obviously, Wikipedia is not a good source for… anything, really, but the fact that they’re giving a 349-year-old encyclopaedia primacy over the summary sentence of a wiki article is demonstrative of how much dishonesty is behind this. And it only gets worse from here.

Exhibit 2: Hermann Moll’s A System of Geography, 1701

THE Country of Tartary, call'd Great Tartary, to distinguish it from the Lesser, in Europe, has for its Boundaries, on the West, the Caspian Sea, and Moscovitick Tartary; on the North, the Scythian, or Tartarian Sea; on the East, the Sea of the Kalmachites, and the Straight of Jesso; and on the South, China, India, or the Dominions of the great Mogul and Persia : So that it is apparently the largest Region of the whole Continent of Asia, extending it self [sic] farthest, both towards the North and East: In the modern Maps, it is plac'd within the 70th and 170th Degree of Longitude, excluding Muscovitick Tartary; as also between the 40 and 72 Degree of Northern Latitude.
Immediately underneath the scan of this text is the statement, clearly highlighted, that
Tartary was not a tract. It was a country.
Hmm, very emphatic there. Except wait no, the same semantic problem recurs. ‘Country’ need not mean ‘state’. Moreover, in the very same paragraph, Moll (or rather his translator) refers to Tartary as a ‘Region’, which very much disambiguates the idea. Aside from that, it is telling that Moll refers to three distinct ‘Tartaries’: ’Great Tartary’ in Asia, ‘Lesser Tartary’ in Europe, and ‘Muscovite Tartary’ – that is, the eastern territories of the Russian Tsardom. If, as they are saying, ‘Great Tartary’ was a coherent entity, whatever happened to ‘Lesser Tartary’?

Exhibit 3: A 1957 report by the CIA on ‘National Cultural Development Under Communism’

Is a conspiracy theorist… actually believing a CIA document? Yep. I’ll add some context later that further complicates the issue.
Or let us take the matter of history, which, along with religion, language and literature, constitute the core of a people’s cultural heritage. Here again the Communists have interfered in a shameless manner. For example, on 9 August 1944, the Central Committee of the Communist Party, sitting in Moscow, issued a directive ordering the party’s Tartar Provincial Committee “to proceed to a scientific revolution of the history of Tartaria, to liquidate serious shortcomings and mistakes of a nationalistic character committed by individual writers and historians in dealing with Tartar history.” In other words, Tartar history was to be rewritten—let its be frank, was to be falsified—in order to eliminate references to Great Russian aggressions and to hide the facts of the real course of Tartar-Russian relations.
[similar judgement on Soviet rewriting of histories of Muslim areas to suit a pro-Russian agenda]
What’s fascinating about the inclusion of this document is that it is apparently often invoked as a piece of anti-Fomenko evidence, by tying New Chronology in with older Russian-nationalist Soviet revisionism. So not only is it ironic that they’re citing a CIA document, of all things, but a CIA document often used to undermine the spiritual founder of the whole Tartaria ‘theory’ in the first place! But to return to the point, the fundamental issue is that it’s tendentious. This document from 1957 obviously is not going to be that informed on the dynamics of Central Asian ethnicity and history in the way that a modern scholar would be.
In a broader sense, what this document is supposed to prove is that Soviet coverups are why we don’t know about Tartaria. But if most of the evidence came from Western Europe to begin with, why would a Soviet coverup matter? Why wasn’t Tartarian history deployed as a counter-narrative during the Cold War?

Exhibit 4: ‘An 1855 Source’

This is from a footnote in Sir George Cornwalle Lewis’ An Inquiry into the Credibility of the Early Roman History, citing a travelogue by Evariste Huc that had been published in French in 1850 and was soon translated into English. From the digitised version of of Huc’s book on Project Gutenberg (emphasis copied over from the thread):
Such remains of ancient cities are of no unfrequent occurrence in the deserts of Mongolia; but everything connected with their origin and history is buried in darkness. Oh, with what sadness does such a spectacle fill the soul! The ruins of Greece, the superb remains of Egypt,—all these, it is true, tell of death; all belong to the past; yet when you gaze upon them, you know what they are; you can retrace, in memory, the revolutions which have occasioned the ruins and the decay of the country around them. Descend into the tomb, wherein was buried alive the city of Herculaneum,—you find there, it is true, a gigantic skeleton, but you have within you historical associations wherewith to galvanize it. But of these old abandoned cities of Tartary, not a tradition remains; they are tombs without an epitaph, amid solitude and silence, uninterrupted except when the wandering Tartars halt, for a while, within the ruined enclosures, because there the pastures are richer and more abundant.
There’s a paraphrase from Lewis as well, but you can just read it on the thread. The key thing here is that yes, there were abandoned settlements in the steppe. Why must this be indicative of a lost sedentary civilisation, and not instead the remnants of political capitals of steppe federations which were abandoned following those federations’ collapse? Places like Karakorum, Kubak Zar, Almaliq and Sarai were principally built around political functions, being centres for concentration of religious and ritual authority (especially monasteries) and stores of non-movable (or difficult to move) wealth. But individual examples of abandoned settlements are not evidence of broad patterns of settlement that came to be abandoned en masse. Indeed, the very fact that the cited shepherd calls the abandoned location ‘The Old Town’ in the singular implies just how uncommon such sites were – for any given region, there might really only be one of note.

Exhibit 5: Ethnic characteristics in artistic depictions of Chinggis and Timur

I… don’t quite know what to make of these.
Today, we have certain appearance related stereotypes. I think we are very much off there. It looks like Tartary was multi-religious, and multi-cultural. One of the reasons I think so is the tremendous disparity between what leaders like Genghis Khan, Batu Khan, Timur aka Tamerlane looked like to the contemporary artists vs. the appearance attributed to them today.
Ummm, what?
These are apparently what they look like today. These are ‘contemporary’ depictions of Chinggis:
Except, as the guy posting the thread says, these are 15th-18th century depictions… so NOT CONTEMPORARY.
As for Timur, we have:
In what bizzaro world are these contemporary?
We’ll get to Batur Khan in a moment because that’s its own kettle of worms. But can this user not recognise that artists tend to depict things in ways that are familiar? Of course white European depictions of Chinggis and Timur will tend to make them look like white Europeans, while East Asian depictions of Chinggis will tend to make him look Asian, and Middle Eastern depictions of Chinggis and Timur will make them look Middle Eastern. This doesn’t prove that ‘Tartaria’ was multicultural, in fact it you’d have an easier time using this ‘evidence’ to argue that Chinggis and Timur were shapeshifters who could change ethnicities at will!

Exhibit 6: Turkish sculptures

Why this person thinks modern Turkish sculptures are of any use to anyone baffles me. The seven sculptures shown are of Batu Khan (founder of the ‘Golden Horde’/Jochid khanates), Timur, Bumin (founder of the First Turkic Khaganate), Ertugrul (father of Osman, the founder of the Ottoman empire), Babur (founder of the Mughal Empire), Attila the Hun, and Kutlug Bilge Khagan (founder of the Uyghur Khaganate). They are accompanied (except in the case of Ertugrul) by the dates of the empires/confederations that they founded – hence, for instance, Babur’s dates being 1526 to 1858, the lifespan of the Mughal Empire, or Timur’s being 1368 (which seems arbitrary) to 1507 (the fall of Herat to the Shaybanids). To quote the thread:
A few of them I do not know, but the ones I do look nothing like what I was taught at school. Also dates are super bizarre on those plaques.
Again, Turkish sculptors make Turkic people look like Turks. Big surprise. And the dates are comprehensible if you just take a moment to think.
Do Turks know something we don't?
Turkish, evidently.

Exhibit 7: A map from 1652 that the user can’t even read

The other reason why I think Tartary had to be multi-religious, and multi-cultural is its vastness during various moments in time. For example in 1652 Tartary appears to have control over the North America.
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1652-nova-totius-terrarum-orbis-geographica-ac-hydrographica-tabula_1-1-jpg.37277/
This speaks for itself.
The thread was later edited to include a link to a post on ‘Tartarians’ in North America made on 7 August 2018, but that’s beside the point here, read at your own leisure (if you can call it ‘leisure’). Except for the part where at one point he admits he can’t read Latin, and so his entire theory in that post is based on the appearance of the word ‘Tartarorum’ in an unspecified context on a map of North America.

Part 2: The Coverup

The official history is hiding a major world power which existed as late as the 19th century. Tartary was a country with its own flag, its own government and its own place on the map. Its territory was huge, but somehow quietly incorporated into Russia, and some other countries. This country you can find on the maps predating the second half of the 19th century.
…Okay then.

Exhibit 8: Google Ngrams

https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_ngram-jpg.37276/
This screenshot shows that the use of ‘Tartary’ and ‘Tartaria’ declined significantly over time. This is apparently supposed to surprise us. Or maybe it shows that we actually understand the region better…

Part 1a: Back to the existence

You know, a common theme with historical conspiracy theories is how badly they’re laid out, in the literal sense of the layout of their documents and video content. Don’t make a header called ‘The Coverup’ and then only have one thing before jumping back to the evidence for the existence again.

Exhibit 9: A Table

Yet, some time in the 18th century Tartary Muskovite was the biggest country in the world: 3,050,000 square miles.
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_huge-13-jpg.37329/
I do not have enough palms to slap into my face. Do they not understand that this is saying how much of Tartary was owned… by foreign powers?

Exhibit 10: Book covers

You can look at the images on the thread itself but here’s a few highlights:
Histories of the Qing conquest of China, because as far as Europeans were concerned the Manchus were Tartars. Proof of Tartaria because…?
An ambassador who never set foot in ‘Tartary’ itself, cool cool, very good evidence there.
There’s also three screenshots from books that aren’t even specifically named, so impossible to follow up. Clearly this is all we need.

Exhibit 11: Maps

The maps are the key think the Tartaria pushers use. All these maps showing ‘Grand Tartary’ or ‘Tartaria’ or what have you. There’s 20 of these here and you can look for yourselves, but the key thing is: why do these people assume that this referred to a single state entity? Because any of these maps that include the world more generally will also present large parts of Africa in generic terms, irrespective of actual political organisation in these regions. And many of the later maps clearly show the tripartite division of the region into ‘Chinese Tartary’, ‘Russian Tartary’, and ‘Independent Tartary’, which you think would be clear evidence that most of this region was controlled by, well, the Chinese (really, the Manchus) and the Russians. And many of these maps aren’t even maps of political organisation, but geographical space. See how many lump all of mainland Southeast Asia into ‘India’. Moreover, the poor quality of the mapping should give things away. This one for instance is very clear on the Black Sea coast, but the Caspian is a blob, and moreover, a blob that’s elongated along the wrong axis! They’re using Western European maps as an indicator of Central Asian realities in the most inept way possible, and it would be sad if it weren’t so hilarious. The fact that the depictions of the size of Tartaria are incredibly inconsistent also seems not to matter.

Exhibit 12: The Tartarian Language

There’s an 1849 American newspaper article referring to the ‘Tartarian’ language, which is very useful thank you, and definitely not more reflective of American ignorance than actual linguistic reality.
The next one is more interesting, because it’s from a translation of some writing by a French Jesuit, referring to the writing of Manchu, and who asserted (with very little clear evidence) that it could be read in any direction. In April last year, Tartaria users [claimed to have stumbled on a dictionary of Tartarian and French](np.reddit.com/Tartaria/comments/bi3aph/tartarian_language_dictionary/) called the Dictionnaire Tartare-Mantchou-François. What they failed to realise is that the French generally called the Manchus ‘Tartare-Mantchou’, and this was in fact a Manchu-French dictionary. In other words, a [Tartare-Mantchou]-[François] dictionary, not a [Tartare]-[Mantchou]-[François] dictionary. It is quite plausible, in fact probable, that the ‘Tartarian’ referred to in the newspaper article was Manchu.

Exhibit 13: Genealogies of Tartarian Kings

Descended From Genghiscan
Reads the comment above this French chart. How the actual hell did OP not recognise that ‘Genghiscan’ is, erm, Genghis Khan? Is it that hard to understand that maybe, just maybe, ‘Tartars’ was what they called Mongols back in the day, and ‘Tartaria’ the Mongol empire and its remnants?

Exhibit 14: Ethnographic drawings

These prove that there were people called Tartars, not that there was a state of Tartaria. NEXT

Exhibit 15: Tartaria’s alleged flag

Images they provide include
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_flags-11-jpg.37367/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/tartary_flag_6-jpg.37307/
Except there’s one problem. As any EU4 player will tell you, that’s the flag of the Khanate of Kazan. And while they can trot out a few 18th and 19th century charts showing the apparent existence of a Tartarian naval flag, the inconvenient fact that Tartaria would have been landlocked seems not to get in the way. To be sure, their consistent inclusion is odd, given the non-existence of Tartary as a country, and moreover its landlocked status. It seems plausible that the consistent similarity of the designs is just a result of constant copying and poor checking, but on its own it means relatively little.

Exhibit 16: 19th-century racism

https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/flags_of_all_nations_1865-mongolian-1-jpg.37369/
That I think speaks for itself.

Exhibit 17: Flags of Moscow on one particular chart

It is also worth mentioning that in the British Flag Table of 1783, there are three different flags listed as a flag of the Tsar of Moscow. There is also an Imperial Flag of Russia as well as multiple naval flags. And all of them are proceeded by a flag of the Viceroy of Russia.
By that logic, the Royal Navy ran Britain because the Royal Navy ensigns precede the Union Jack. It’s simply a conscious decision to show the flags of individuals before the flags of states. The ‘Viceroy’ (unsure what the original Russian title would be) and ‘Czar’ of Muscovy would presumably be, well, the Emperor of Russia anyway, so as with the British section where the Royal Standard and the flags of naval officers came first, the same seems true of Russia. Also, as a side note, the placement of the USA at the end, after the Persians, the Mughals and ‘Tartarians’, is a fun touch.
Significance of the Viceroy is in the definition of the term. A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. Our official history will probably say that it was the Tsar of Russia who would appoint a viceroy of Moscow. I have reasons to doubt that.
Why is the flag of the Viceroy of Moscow positioned prior to any other Russian flag? Could it be that the Viceroy of Moscow was superior to its Czar, and was "supervising" how this Tartarian possession was being run?
No.

Part 3: 1812

This, this is where it gets really bonkers. A key part of this post is arguing that Napoleon’s invasion of Russia was a cover story for a joint invasion against Tartaria gone horrendously wrong. All the stops are being pulled out here.
There is a growing opinion in Russia that French invasion of Russia played out according to a different scenario. The one where Tsar Alexander I, and Napoleon were on the same side. Together they fought against Tartary. Essentially France and Saint Petersburg against Moscow (Tartary). And there is a strong circumstantial evidence to support such a theory.
Oh yes, we’re going there.
Questions to Answer:
1. Saint Petersburg was the capitol of Russia. Yet Napoleon chose to attack Moscow. Why?
He didn’t, he was trying to attack the Russian army. (credit to dandan_noodles).
2. It appears that in 1912 there was a totally different recollection of the events of 1812. How else could you explain commemorative 1912 medals honoring Napoleon?
Because it’s a bit of an in-your-face to Napoleon for losing so badly?
And specifically the one with Alexander I, and Napoleon on the same medal. The below medal says something similar to, "Strength is in the unity: will of God, firmness of royalty, love for homeland and people"
Yeah, it’s showing Alexander I beating Napoleon, and a triumphant double-headed Russian eagle above captured French standards. Also, notice how Alexander is in full regalia, while Napoleon’s is covered up by his greatcoat?
3. Similarity between Russian and French uniforms. There are more different uniforms involved, but the idea remains, they were ridiculously similar.
Ah yes, because fashions in different countries always develop separately, and never get influenced by each other.
How did they fight each other in the dark?
With difficulty, presumably.
Basically, he’s saying that this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
Is too similar to this: https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/1_rus-jpg.37322/
To be coincidental.
OK, whatever. Here’s where it gets interesting:
There was one additional combat asset officially available to Russians in the war of 1812. And that was the Militia. It does appear that this so-called Militia, was in reality the army of Tartary fighting against Napoleon and Alexander I.
Russian VolunteeMilitia Units... Tartarians?
Clearly this man has never encountered the concept of a cossack, an opelchenie, or, erm, a GREATCOAT.
4. Russian nobility in Saint Petersburg spoke French well into the second half of the 19th century. The general explanation was, that it was the trend of time and fashion. Google contains multiple opinions on the matter. * Following the same logic, USA, Britain and Russia should've picked up German after the victory in WW2.
Clearly never heard of the term lingua franca then.
5. This one I just ran into: 19th-century fans were totally into a Napoleon/Alexander romance
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/treaties_of_tilsit_miniature_-france-_1810s-_side_a-jpg.37314/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/napoleonxalexander2-jpg.37310/
https://web.archive.org/web/20200701065421im_/https://www.stolenhistory.org/attachments/napoleon-alexander-jpg.37312/
It is true that after the Treaty of Tilsit, Napoleon wrote to his wife, Josephine, that
I am pleased with [Emperor] Alexander; he ought to be with me. If he were a woman, I think I should make him my mistress.
But Napoleon’s ‘honeymoon period’ with Russia following the Treaty of Tilsit should not be seen as indicative of a permanent Napoleonic affection for Russia. Notably, Napoleon’s war with Russia didn’t just end in 1812. How are the Tartaria conspiracists going to explain the War of the Sixth Coalition, when Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops drove the French out of Germany? Did the bromance suddenly stop because of 1812? Or, is it more reasonable to see 1812 as the end result of the bromance falling apart?

Conclusions

So there you have it, Tartaria in all its glorious nonsensicalness. Words cannot capture how massively bonkers this entire thing is. And best of all, I hardly needed my own sources because so much of it is just a demonstration of terrible reading comprehension. Still, if you want to actually learn about some of the history of Inner Eurasia, see below:

Bibliography

submitted by EnclavedMicrostate to badhistory [link] [comments]


2020.08.22 10:13 A_Left_Of_North Chapter 1 - The Coup of a King, The Start of a Dynasty

Our story starts on a hot night.
It is the evening of 580 A.D. April 23rd(All dates are recorded in the Chinese calendar. There really aren’t much differences between Chinese calendar and the conventional calendar, so I won't bother converting between them). The city of Chang An, the capital of the Northern Zhou Dynasty is under curfew (Most major cities back then impose curfew regularly except during holidays), everyone has returned to their home except a few patrol officers.
However, two men, sneaking in the shadow, leaves the royal palace in a hurry. These two men are:
Liu Fang, Head of Royal Steward, basically the Deputy Secretary of State (I will do my best to translate all the original titles and name, but I will give nicknames and modern equivalence of their position so you can remember them easily). And Zheng Yi, Inner Head Steward, basically the personal secretary of the emperor, who, in terms of actual power, outranks Liu Fang.
The two left the royal palace to meet King of Sui, Yang Jian (I know Chinese names are hard to remember, but the bold names are important, please remember them). Kings in ancient China are titles given to close relatives of the emperor. They outrank all officials in the government. More importantly, Kings are allowed to have their own court, which can include concubines and guards (This is important, Kings are basically allowed to have their own army, but the size is often limited to a few hundred men).
A few words about our first protagonist, Yang Jian, The First of His Name (that’s actually true) Father of Dragon, Breaker of Chain (Yea this part is just me being a huge GoT fan), Protector of the Seven Kingdom (that’s also kind of true, as he will eventually divide his land into seven states). But for now, despite given the title “King”, he doesn’t really have any land or a real name. Ancient Chinese nobles are given a family name by the emperor. For Yang, his official name given by the emperor is “PuLiuRu” (Don’t bother remembering this, you won’t see this name again).
Liu and Zheng come with an important message:
“The emperor’s father is dying. His son, the emperor, is only 8 years old. We’d like you to step in as the regent for Northern Wei”
Now it is important to know what the hell is going on with the royal family at this time. The “emperor’s father”, Xuan, is only 22 years old. You might be wondering, why is he not the emperor, but he's 8 years old son? Well, to spare you the detail, he had too much sex. Yes, you heard that right. He was only emperor for a year, before finding governing too boring and time-consuming. He made his son emperor and went to fucking his five wives and countless concubines. It is also worth mentioning that one of the wives is Yang Li Hua, Yang’s daughter.
With his daughter inside the court, the news of the emperor dying is no surprise to Yang. In fact, he has known this for two weeks now. But the speed of which Xuan fucked himself to death is surprising, even to him. As a seasoned politician, Yang’s first instinct is to reject the offer of regency, as he accurately sensed that a chaotic time is upon the dynasty, and a lot, a lot of deaths.
After several rejections (mainly bureaucratic bullshits), Liu was understandably pissed. After all, he is risking his life coming to Yang with this news.
“If you are doing it, you got to do it now. If not, I will do it.”
We should really mention, that despite being a King, Yang’s political career to this point has been filled with hardship. Although coming from a prestigious family, his father was nearly killed several times for pissing off the late emperor Wu. Who, unlike his son Xuan, was a hot-headed warmonger.Yang has spent the better half of his life fighting for Wu, which finally earned back some respect his father lost. Yet the new emperor Xuan saw him as a threat and tried to kill his daughter. There are also several high-ranking officials in the government that has repeatedly tried to take away the little power he still has. They will surely not be pleased with him becoming the regent
Just before Liu was ready to give up, Zheng, who is a close friend of Yang and was watching Liu furiously trying to get Yang on board, decides to weight in
“The Secretary of State, Yan Zhi Yi, and General Yuwen Zhong (both are political enemies of Yang) has received this news as well”
This is the last straw
Yang immediately summons his guards and follows Liu and Zheng to the royal palace. He also orders his five sons, all with several thousands of the best soldiers the dynasty has to offer, to surround the palace.
Unfortunately for Yan and Yuwen, they bump into Yang and several hundreds of his goons. After a friendly greeting, Yang throws both of them in prison. Two hours later, the emperor’s father is dead
Now, Yang is no ordinary politician. He may be reluctant to start the coup, but now he is here, he is not backing down. He makes four brilliant moves that will solidify his power as the regent of Northern Zhou:
  1. By the name late emperor (Xuan, because he technically was the emperor. And no, Yang faked this decree), Yangis named Hand of the Emperor, basically the prime minister, or the president for you Americans. Yuan Wei (One of his goons) is named the head of the royal guard. Gao Jong (yes, this guy is important and extremely badass, I am going to call him Jong because it sounds funny), Liu Fang, Zheng Yi as the core member of his cabinet.
This brilliant decision is slightly undercut by the fact that Liu is named Second Minister, basically the vice president, and is given full administrative power. Zheng is named National Security Advisor but basically given the power of Secretary of Defense (full military power). But a quick word with Li De Lin (Oh yes, this one is even more badass than the last one) made Yang realizes his mistake. As it turns out, Lin is absolutely correct, Liu will try to rebel against Yang, but fails miserably and loses his head in the process
  1. Yang’s first royal decree is to summon the King of Zhao, Chen, Yue, Dai and Teng (Nope, you don’t need to remember any of them, because none of them put up a fight) to the capital in case any of them want to rebel against him. The excuse is that the princess is marrying to the Mongolian Khan (There will be a dedicated chapter explaining the complex relationship between the Chinese Dynasty and the Mongo Empire). Future more, Yang also appointed trusted allies to “aid” any governors that may not recognize Yang's authority, and try to “convince” (bribe) as many cabinet members in these governors’ office as possible
  2. Bribe more people, even those who are clear that they are not joining Yang’s coup just yet, which includes Linand Yang Su (Not related to Yang, but he is important, we will call him Mafia Suas he is cruel to his enemy, and his own men)
  3. No political persecution. Remember Yan? The secretary of state who unfortunately ran into Yang in the royal palace? He is in possession of the royal seal (The symbol of power in Ancient Chinese Dynasty. Think of it as the nuclear button, capable of mobilizing all the army and is carried around by every emperor). After the takeover, Yang forgives him for fighting against him, and rewarded him for being loyal to the late emperor. We won’t be seeing Yan again, but he will govern for Yang in the next decade, all the way till Yang becomes the emperor of China, and eventually dies on his job.
You may wonder why Yang shows mercy toward someone who, for all he knows, was going to take the regency and cast him aside. We will talk more about how Northern Zhou was founded, and the chaotic period China was in during this time. But if there is one moral we can learn from Yang’s strategy, is that you can only show mercy after you crush your enemy. Do you think Yan will be a royal servant if Yang didn’t show him who’s boss?
However, Yang is far from perfect. He will fuck up plenty of times on the road to unify China, and the first fuck-up is coming right up in the next chapter
submitted by A_Left_Of_North to SuiTang300 [link] [comments]


2020.08.17 10:30 opmt Reviews of legal medical strains in Australia.

I've been a legal medical cannabis patient in Australia for almost 18 months now. I was referred by my GP for chronic pain, anxiety and depression, and IBS.
It's been an extremely expensive but life saving journey for me. When I finally got access to medical grade product, without fear of consuming pesticides and cancer-inducing pgr literally made this grown man cry. Also not having to deal with deadbeat lowlife dealers who are more interested in ripping you off or selling you something harder (or guns) is a major plus in my life.
Here are my reviews of each strain I've been lucky enough to try, and a couple of oils. I have a 6 ton rosin press and normally consume via dabbing. Though I have also converted rosin to pens, used the volcano digital for many months too. Here is my experience to date with the 8 products the TGA has graciously approved for me.
Name - Bedrocan
Company - Bedrocan based in Netherlands
Strain - Jack Herer
THC/CBD - 21%/<1%
Smell - Lime
Appearance - Dense small buds
Effect - Uplifting, focused, happy
Side effects - Light sensitivity
Rosin profile - Excellent, light, malleable, great taste. Great consistent yields.
Value for money - at $690 an ounce this ain't cheap but the quality is supreme.
Notes - This is for me the definitive medicinal product. Super effective, yet the only downside is light sensitivity. For this reason it is with a heavy heart it's no longer my go-to. Also takes a couple of weeks from order to delivery.

Name - Bedica
Company - Bedrocan based in Netherlands
Strain - Unknown (Proprietary Indica)
THC/CBD - 16%/<1%
Smell - Earthy
Appearance - pre-chopped
Effect - Both sedative and task based
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Low yield
Value for money - $690 an ounce,
Notes - Meant to be sedative and prescribed as an indica, but speaking with the doc, I find this more a task based strain. The doc agreed acknowledging it's origins had been misunderstood and it is indeed task based. I like it, however have moved away from it as Bedrocan was more value for money.

Name - Bediol
Company - Bedrocan based in Netherlands
Strain - Unknown (Proprietary Indica)
THC/CBD - 8%/6%
Smell - Passionfruit
Appearance - pre-chopped
Effect - Anti-inflammatory, calming
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Lowest yield
Value for money - $690 an ounce,
Notes - For a CBD product with THC, this is great for headaches, muscular pain, and doesn't get you too high at all. Great medicine, but I need something stronger usually THC wise.

Name - Henik
Company - Aprhia based in Canada
Strain - Alien Dawg
THC/CBD - 19%/<1%
Smell - Gassy
Appearance - Small dense buds
Effect - Mild, uplifting
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Mid-tier
Value for money - $900 an ounce
Notes - Ridiculously priced mids. Avoid unless you are really that curious.

Name - Champlain (oil)
Company - Aprhia based in Canada
Strain - Henik Alien Dawg
THC/CBD - 19%/<1%
Smell - Weed
Appearance - Oil
Effect - Stony
Side effects - Tiredness
Rosin profile - NA
Value for money - $300 / 50 ml
Notes - A decent oil but there are much better out there. Aphria just a big rip off imho.

Name - Little Green Pharma Classic Oil
Company - LGP based in Australia
Strain - Unknown
THC/CBD - 20%/5%
Smell - Light weed smell
Appearance - Oil
Effect - Tripp'n balls
Side effects - No let up
Rosin profile - NA
Value for money - $300 / 50 ml, that's about $6 a dose, which is 6+ hours, excellent value.
Notes - This LGP oil is the real deal. I normally take twice the dose (20ml) and its set and forget. But I don't do this oil unless on weekends as it's a relentless stoning. Always have some in the fridge just in case, but use infrequently if at all.

Name - Mongolian Indica
Company - CannaTrek based in Australia
Strain - Mongolian Indica
THC/CBD - 18%/<1%
Smell - Earthy
Appearance - Massive dense buds
Effect - Heavy stone
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Consistently decent yields. A less malleable rosin, less moisture.
Value for money - $660 per ounce
Notes - This is my go-to indica now. The massive buds you get are to die for and it's constantly a heavy hitting stone. Nice to have access to a true indica that helps put you to sleep.

Name - Sativa Acadia
Company - CannaTrek based in Australia
Strain - Sativa Acadia
THC/CBD - 16%/<1%
Smell - Chem
Appearance - Small dense buds
Effect - Pain relief+++, uplifting, focused
Side effects - happiness :)
Rosin profile - Consistently decent yields, not as much as Mongolian, and somewhat malleable.
Value for money - $660 per ounce
Notes - This is my absolute hands down favourite. Use it day, night, the uplifting effect and pain deadening makes this my most sought after strain. Love what CannaTrek are doing!
In order of best liked to least;
1. Sativa Acadia 2. Bedrocan 3. Mongolian Indica 4. LGP Classic oil 5. Bediol 6. Bedica 7. Henik 8. Champlain 
More than happy to answer any questions.
submitted by opmt to MedicalCannabisAus [link] [comments]


2020.08.17 09:02 opmt Reviews of legal medical strains in Australia.

I've been a legal medical cannabis patient in Australia for almost 18 months now. I was referred by my GP for chronic pain, anxiety and depression, and IBS.
It's been an extremely expensive but life saving journey for me. When I finally got access to medical grade product, without fear of consuming pesticides and cancer-inducing pgr literally made this grown man cry. Also not having to deal with deadbeat lowlife dealers who are more interested in ripping you off or selling you something harder (or guns) is a major plus in my life.
Here are my reviews of each strain I've been lucky enough to try, and a couple of oils. I have a 6 ton rosin press and normally consume via dabbing. Though I have also converted rosin to pens, used the volcano digital for many months too. Here is my experience to date with the 8 products the TGA has graciously approved for me.

Name - Bedrocan
Company - Bedrocan based in Netherlands
Strain - Jack Herer
THC/CBD - 21%/<1%
Smell - Lime
Appearance - Dense small buds
Effect - Uplifting, focused, happy
Side effects - Light sensitivity
Rosin profile - Excellent, light, malleable, great taste. Great consistent yields.
Value for money - at $690 an ounce this ain't cheap but the quality is supreme.
Notes - This is for me the definitive medicinal product. Super effective, yet the only downside is light sensitivity. For this reason it is with a heavy heart it's no longer my go-to. Also takes a couple of weeks from order to delivery.

Name - Bedica
Company - Bedrocan based in Netherlands
Strain - Unknown (Proprietary Indica)
THC/CBD - 16%/<1%
Smell - Earthy
Appearance - pre-chopped
Effect - Both sedative and task based
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Low yield
Value for money - $690 an ounce,
Notes - Meant to be sedative and prescribed as an indica, but speaking with the doc, I find this more a task based strain. The doc agreed acknowledging it's origins had been misunderstood and it is indeed task based. I like it, however have moved away from it as Bedrocan was more value for money.

Name - Bediol
Company - Bedrocan based in Netherlands
Strain - Unknown (Proprietary Indica)
THC/CBD - 8%/6%
Smell - Passionfruit
Appearance - pre-chopped
Effect - Anti-inflammatory, calming
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Lowest yield
Value for money - $690 an ounce,
Notes - For a CBD product with THC, this is great for headaches, muscular pain, and doesn't get you too high at all. Great medicine, but I need something stronger usually THC wise.

Name - Henik
Company - Aprhia based in Canada
Strain - Alien Dawg
THC/CBD - 19%/<1%
Smell - Gassy
Appearance - Small dense buds
Effect - Mild, uplifting
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Mid-tier
Value for money - $900 an ounce
Notes - Ridiculously priced mids. Avoid unless you are really that curious.

Name - Champlain (oil)
Company - Aprhia based in Canada
Strain - Henik Alien Dawg
THC/CBD - 19%/<1%
Smell - Weed
Appearance - Oil
Effect - Stony
Side effects - Tiredness
Rosin profile - NA
Value for money - $300 / 50 ml
Notes - A decent oil but there are much better out there. Aphria just a big rip off imho.

Name - Little Green Pharma Classic Oil
Company - LGP based in Australia
Strain - Unknown
THC/CBD - 20%/5%
Smell - Light weed smell
Appearance - Oil
Effect - Tripp'n balls
Side effects - No let up
Rosin profile - NA
Value for money - $300 / 50 ml, that's about $6 a dose, which is 6+ hours, excellent value.
Notes - This LGP oil is the real deal. I normally take twice the dose (20ml) and its set and forget. But I don't do this oil unless on weekends as it's a relentless stoning. Always have some in the fridge just in case, but use infrequently if at all.

Name - Mongolian Indica
Company - CannaTrek based in Australia
Strain - Mongolian Indica
THC/CBD - 18%/<1%
Smell - Earthy
Appearance - Massive dense buds
Effect - Heavy stone
Side effects -
Rosin profile - Consistently decent yields. A less malleable rosin, less moisture.
Value for money - $660 per ounce
Notes - This is my go-to indica now. The massive buds you get are to die for and it's constantly a heavy hitting stone. Nice to have access to a true indica that helps put you to sleep.

Name - Sativa Acadia
Company - CannaTrek based in Australia
Strain - Sativa Acadia
THC/CBD - 16%/<1%
Smell - Chem
Appearance - Small dense buds
Effect - Pain relief+++, uplifting, focused
Side effects - happiness :)
Rosin profile - Consistently decent yields, not as much as Mongolian, and somewhat malleable.
Value for money - $660 per ounce
Notes - This is my absolute hands down favourite. Use it day, night, the uplifting effect and pain deadening makes this my most sought after strain. Love what CannaTrek are doing!

In order of best liked to least;
1. Sativa Acadia 2. Bedrocan 3. Mongolian Indica 4. LGP Classic oil 5. Bediol 6. Bedica 7. Henik 8. Champlain 

More than happy to answer any questions.
submitted by opmt to ausents [link] [comments]


2020.08.16 17:24 Einstein2004113 Complete history of the post-Soviet states between 1945 and 1962

This post will be divided into the 4 regions, Russia, Western Siberia, Central Siberia and the Far East. Most of the dates given will be assumptions/approximations. Also if there is any error, please report it so I can change it ! I may also have forgotten some events, so suggestions are welcome

Russia
-After the defeat in WW2, general Voroshilov and other Soviet troops and commanders reorganized in the city of Kuibyshev (Samara) and formed the West Russian Revolutionnary front, encompassing all of the region of Russia in game + the Southern Urals and disputed territories in the A-A line. The city of Syktyvar (in Komi) became the capital of the Front.
-After the German economical crash in the 50's, the Front lauches a large offensive on Moscowien and the German possessions, making quick gains and completely shattering the German army. However, The West Siberian People's Republic of Kaganovich refuse to commit more troops for the war.
-Following the destruction of numerous units, the German government starts enrolling Russian collaborators, most importantly Andrey Vlasov and the monarchists of Vladimir Romanov
-Tensions in the front start to appear. After 40 days of offensive, after taking Voroshilovgrad (Stalingrad OTL/Paulusbourg in game) and sieging Moscow and Leningrad, the Front starts to collapse. The Russian collaborators also start making great advances into the Front territory.
-The Republic of Komi declares independence from the front, followed by separatists (Bashkiria, Tatarstan), independent units and generals cut off from the high command (Gorky - Averin) and simply opportunists (Aryan Brotherhood/Gayny)
-The Monarchists under Vladimir and the Russian Liberation Army under Vlasov secure a holdout and establish a governement around the cities of Vyatka and Samara respectively.
-The Front, with its army shattered, retreats to Arkhangelsk
The German bombing campaigns across Russia would destroy any attempt at unifying it. The people of this region would suffer the most brutal bombing, being only relieved and saved from total collapse by the Free Aviators
Western Siberia
-After the collapse of the Union, Lazar Kaganovich, an opponent to the regime of Bukharin, seized control of Western Siberia with the help of Konstantin Rokossovsky and Dmitry Karbyshev and declared the formation of the West Siberian People's Republic.
-However, the German bombing campaign and the relative inaction of Kaganovich (notably in the West Russian War) made his allies distance themselves from him.
-Karbyshev and his followers first formed the Russian Black League and took control of the city of Omsk
-Angered by the inaction of Kaganovich following the seizure of Omsk, Konstantin Rokossovsky decided to take control of the city of Sverdlovsk with the intent of restoring the Union himself
-With the most populous and industralized areas of the region divided, walords in the borderlands assumed control of their regions, namely Yugra, Vorkuta and Zlatoust (these regions seemed to be pretty out of the control of Kaganovich in the first place, the collapse of the Republic just made it effective)
-A prisoners rebellion in Vorkuta would lead to the creation of the Ural League, escaping the frozen north and marching to the South.
While the German bombing on this side of the Ural is not as violent as it is in Russia, thanks to the distance and the Free Aviators being closer, it still shatters any hope of unification for the moment
Central Siberia
This region is caracterized by its important industry, as the "Siberian plan" of Bukharin was focused on this area.
-After the collapse of the Union, the Soviet intelligentsia, musicians, writers, poets, thinkers gathered in the city of Tomsk and wrote a new democratic constitution, pleading to restore the freedom of thought and expression that was taken from them in the Soviet Era, and establish the Central Siberian Republic
-Alexandr Vasilevsky and remants of the Soviet Red Amry retreat into Mongolia and join forces with the troops of the Mongolian People's Republic. Isolated, they will not be able to participate in any conflict (West Russian War, collapse of the West Siberian People's Republic, Far Eastern War)
-The people around the Angara's basin around the city of Kansk start forming commitees and refuse to submit to the Republic, instead proclaiming their independence as the Siberian Anarchist Soviet.
-The Central Siberian Republic quickly find themselves at war with the Far Eastern government of Genrikh Yagoda, who claims to be the successor of the Soviet Union. The anarchists refuse to acknowledge the authority of any side and start fighting and defending against both.
-The rationning, conscription and other war measures starts angering Alexandr Pokryshkin, who, with the help of Vasily Shuksin, seize the city of Novosibirsk and declares independence from the Central Siberian Republic.
-General Nikolai Krylov is sent by the Republic to attack the anarchists. However, Nikolai Andreev and his clique of officers would end up mutinying against him and seizing the city of Krasnoyarsk, putting a term to the offensive
-Following the betrayal of Andreev, Krylov retreat into the city of Kemerovo and start falling into Madness, eventually proclaiming himself as Rurik II and taking control of the area.
Far East
-Genrikh Yagoda, a powerful and influential Soviet administrator, decides to evacuate most of the government to the East, far away from the Germans, establishing one of the most powerful Soviet successor states. However, his tyrannical rule would eventually weaken his government
-The Far Eastern state launch an attack against the Central Siberian Republic in hope of restoring the Soviet Union, sparking the Far Eastern War.
-Exhaustion from the war and from the tyrannical regime of Yagoda would lead to the eventual proclamation of independence of Aldan and Yakutia
-Seeing the weakness of the Presidium, White Army Generals, Russian Fascists and exiles from Harbin launch an assault against Yagoda's state. While encountering some early success, the offensive would be stalled because of the break up of this Front, as the "Heirs of Harbin" starts fighting between themselves
-Yagoda's state collapse completely, only retaining power in the city of Irkustk and the nearby region
-Valery Sablin and loyal troops under his command take control of a radio station and lauch a call to rebellion across Buryatia, sparking a war between the rebels under Sablin and the government of Yagoda
submitted by Einstein2004113 to TNOmod [link] [comments]


2020.08.16 12:05 el_sh33p Theory on the Lost and Forgotten

Because we can never have enough crackpot theories about the two missing Primarchs.
I'll level with you at the outset: I'm not the best read on 40k Lore. I try to keep up but there's a ton of it to keep track of, even the stuff I like the most. This post also owes most of its existence to Oculus Imperia and the 40kTheories YouTube channels, so feel free to take a couple potshots if either of those bother you.
I'm basing a lot of this on the following canon/assumptions tied to canon:
All of which brings us to...
The Second Primarch, Malal, Primarch of the Black Templars
The Eleventh Primarch, Gene-Father of the Rainbow Warriors
And that's that. Have fun punching holes in it.

EDIT: Holy crap thanks for the Platinum and Gold!
EDIT #2: Fixed some spelling errors, added a bullet point or two, added a few more examples on some existing bullets.
EDIT #3: Same as Edit #2.
submitted by el_sh33p to 40kLore [link] [comments]


2020.08.15 20:46 ConorCulture How I Would Book #4: NXT TakeOver XXX

How I Would Book #1: Fyter Fest 2020
How I Would Book #2: All Out 2020
How I Would Book #3: Wrestle Kingdom 15
Keith Lee (c) defeats Kushida to retain the NXT North American Championship
The opening of our show is a hot one as you can tell. First, how we got here. Keith defeats Adam Cole at The Great American Bash like he did, but instead he holds both belts, because he absolutely should. Him vacating the North American Championship is just dumb, why’d they have him win both if he just would throw it away since he had a better title now, and why are Finn Bálor and Johnny Gargano, people who have held the world title, trying to compete for the NA Title when Keith made it very clear which title is more important, the whole thing I just find dumb. So Keith holds onto both bets for a while, and he must defend them both, however they’ll be defended in separate matches rather than how NJPW had Tetsuya Naito do it: defending both titles in the same match.
Kushida wins a 4-man tournament for the North American Championship match at NXT TakeOver: XXX, defeating Oney Lorcan in the first round after a very hard hitting and technical match. He wins with the Buzzsaw Kick. Other first round match sees Damian Priest win a match with Cameron Grimes, using a Big Boot and Sitout Chokeslam combo to get the 3 count. Kushida and Damian Priest then have a 15-minute bout the following week in the mini-tournament finals, where Kushida wins after a Midnight Express. Keith Lee then comes out afterwards with both belts, and shakes Kushida’s hand to declare the match. I think Kushida’s time has come in NXT for a push, he’s 37 now, he isn’t getting younger and he’s wasted enough time over the past year.
The pair open the show hot with a fast 10 minute match. Kushida is without hesitation, as he goes balls to wall immediately. Keith Lee is reversed in the first 3 minutes or so, powering out of Kushida’s offence most of the time. This is to conserve energy for later on. Kushida has no so much match to worry about, so he gives it his all. Keith Lee then breaks the trance after escaping a hold and hitting a Springboard Corkscrew Crossbody! This is when the action breaks down into a frantic blast of offence. Lee has gone from reserving his energy to trying a finish this as soon as possible, which he does so by doing some crazy moves. Kushida hits a Rolling Elbow and a Wind-up punch, and then goes for Handspring Back Elbow, but Keith Lee catches Kushida and lifts him into a Spirit Bomb, but Kushida gets out with a Facebuster and locks in the Hoverboard Lock. Keith Lee lifts himself out, and places Kushida on the top rope. He goes for a Supernova Rana from there, but Lee catches and finally hits the Spirit Bomb! 1.........2........3!!!
Santos Escobar (c) defeats Finn Bálor to retain the NXT Cruiserweight Championship
Now, I would be lying if I said I didn’t book this because it made my mouth water writing it down. But like all these matches, we’ve got a story. See Santos Escobar is the interim Cruiserweight Champion, and while this is fine, he wants to be the real champion, not this interim crap. He cuts a promo on NXT voicing his frustrations, saying that he is a thousand times better than Jordan Devlin, who is just sitting at home right now and that makes him the real champ, meanwhile he busts his ass over here. He keeps ranting about Devlin, when Bálor comes out, Devlin’s mentor. Escobar looks him up and down and says “I didn’t want the old, out of date version of Jordan Devlin, but it’ll do.” Finn then tells him an old dog can learn new tricks, and smacks him. This is a simple set up, because the match is mainly going to be about the action, which is what it’ll be remembered for.
Bálor starts off hot with a Shotgun Dropkick into the corner. He follows this with a Hanging Soccer Kick and a chop. Seems he took Escobar calling him old as a challenge. He tries the 1916 immediately, but Escobar lifts himself out into a DDT. He then applies a headlock and works down on Finn. Finn escapes a pressure hold with an Arm Drag and this is where we get into the fast paced stuff. Some spots include a Springboard Dropkick countered by a Dropkick, the Cruiserweight Champion countering Bálor’s high risk moves into submission holds several times, Bálor doing a Suicide Dive and then Escobar showing him what a REAL Suicide dive looks like, amongst other cool flippy shit. Escobar’s gang get involved near the end, which allows Escobar to hit his WWE version of the Thrill of the Kill (the old version was the same as Adam Page’s Rite of Passage, which won’t fly in WWE.), I’d make it a Emerald Flowsion, as it looks like it’ll damage the head but it doesn’t. Escobar wins with that.
Karrion Kross defeats Johnny Gargano
Our one and only non-title singles match of the night sees two of my favourite people in NXT go at it. This is probably the match I want to see most in NXT that hasn’t happened. And even though it’s heel vs. heel, I think Kross has to face both faces and heels. Since he is the Harbinger of the End, and the end comes for us all; the honourable and the wicked. Gargano thinks that what Kross is talking about, is bullshit, it ain’t on this Papa Shango nonsense. He tells Kross they’ll have a match, but he doesn’t give a fuck about “the end” or whatever he’s talking about. Scarlett then tells Gargano that he’s foolish, and this trait will bring him closer to his doom. Candice LeRae is also pretty salty with Johnny the whole time, which I will tell you why when we get to the women’s match.
We’re sticking with the 10-minute match, as I don’t want this to be a quick squash since I want it to be actually good, but it’s function is for Kross to look strong by munching on a large star. Kross is vastly superior in the opening bit due to his strength, meaning he dominates Johnny with holds. Johnny breaks free of a headlock with a Enziguri and like the first match, it turns into a mad dash for the finish line between a smaller technical wizard and a larger agile big man. It remains different though by both men using different moves and different spots, including at one point Gargano hitting a Dropkick to Kross and he falls onto the steel steps. Gargano then turns into a braggadocio cocky asshole. We get a final sequence of the Kross Jacket and Gargano Escape being traded, until Kross lifts him into a Doomsday Saito. He then hits one on the outside into the guardrail, and that ends the match.
The Undisputed Era defeats Timothy Thatcher, Cameron Grimes and Fabian Aichner in a No Disqualification Six-man Tag Team Match
This is going to be UE’s send off match in NXT, because to be honest I think it’s time they head to the main roster. So I want to send them off in a match to remember, but first how we got here. Ok so Pat McAfee doesn’t show up on NXT because a celebrity wrestling on a takeover is dumb, just to get that out of the way. Now, this starts when Timothy Thatcher in Walter’s absence, joins Imperium and takes over as leader. Undisputed Era then try and reclaim their tag titles they lost earlier in the year in a title match, which they lose. This makes them very mad. Adam Cole goes on Pat McAfee’s talk show (this is his only appearance) and when McAfee tells him he doesn’t think UE are that good anymore and Imperium have taken over as the superior faction. Cole curses him out and walks off. Thatcher and Cole then start to feud, and it’s settled this will be resolved in a No DQ Match at Takeover between the two factions, in a rematch from Worlds Collide. However, Bobby Fish injures Marcel Barthel backstage after a chain attack. William Regal then punishes Bobby, saying he cannot compete in the match due to his actions, as well saying Imperium will need to find a third man. This third man is Cameron Grimes.
Aichner doesn’t even make an entrance, he just runs out and demands UE to come down and fight him now, as revenge for them injuring his partner. Cole then sprints out and they start to brawl, but because they’re the only ones the match doesn’t officially start. Cole buries Aicher’s forehead into his skull with elbows, and then throws him into the guardrails. Aichner and Cole then trade elbows and fight over the guardrails. Aichner grabs one of the chairs and goes to hit Cole with it, which he does, but then Cole throws him into the plexiglass. Cole then beats him down with the chair and they go back to the ring, where the others come out. Undisputed Era come in first and successfully do a triple Suicide Dive onto all of the opposing team. Roderick Strong and Kyle O’Reilly then double team Grimes. They hit the Ax and Smash and O’Reilly does the air guitar with Aichner’s title belt.
Aichner hops onto the apron but Strong throws the title at him and it falls to the floor. He then hits a Springboard Dropkick into the ring, and throws Strong outside. He then throws KOR over the ropes but he lands on the apron. He goes for a Lariat but Aichner ducks and Superkicks him to the outside where he falls into Strong’s arms. Aichner then hits a Suicide Elbow Drop through the middle rope, with his elbow colliding with Strong’s chest knocking everyone down. Cole hits Grimes with a Running Death Valley Driver onto a chair over where the crowd usually sits, then jumps over the guardrail with a Crossbody pounce on Aichner. He has Strong hold him in place so he can hit a Corona Kick, but he hits Strong instead accidentally. Aichner then hits a Sitout Powerbomb on the outside to Cole! O’Reilly and Thatcher then fight in the ring, both swinging chairs at each other until O’Reilly goes for a Regalplex, but Thatcher gets out into a European Uppercut! He hits a Belly to Belly Suplex, and KOR rolls outside after. He is then hit with a Cave-in from Grimes, flying off the guardrail! Strong then rolls into the ring, and hits Thatcher with a Sick Kick from behind! He then hits him with a Superplex!
Grimes and Aichner then roll in to save him, but Cole and Strong attack both from behind. Grimes counters a Crossbody from Cole into a Collision Course, but he’s then hit with two Superkicks. Aichner throws Strong out, and then throws him over the guardrail. He then hits a Double Springboard Moonsault over the guardrail to Strong!!!! Meanwhile in the ring, KOR and Thatcher are back at it. KOR hits him with a Rolling Butterfly Suplex and locks in the Ankle Lock. Grimes breaks it up with a Orange Crush attempt, but KOR counters into a Facebuster and he’s then double teamed by a Ax and Smash from KOR and Cole, as well as Cole hitting a Last Shot. Strong comes back in and they beat up the ref, for the extra heat. That ref though is Drake Younger, who fights back! He hits a Superkick to every one of them, and a Double DDT to KOR and Strong, but Cole absolutely obliterates him with a Corona Kick and a Last Shot into a chair. Younger is then taken away and a new ref is brought out.
They look to cause more havoc, and they head up to the commentary desk. Strong grabs Mauro and threatens to throw him off the stage into KOR and Cole. Grimes however is behind him, who pushes Strong away and dives over Mauro, off the stage, into Cole and KOR!!! Thatcher then drags Strong down and it breaks down. He hits him with a German Suplex onto the unfolded chair, and locks in a Fujiwara Armbar! Aichner is back up and he joins the party with Cole, O’Reilly and Grimes. Grimes and Aichner both take the pair down to ringside, and throw a table at them. It doesn’t break through, so they’re throwing wood at two men. Cole rolls back into the ring while KOR stays on the outside. Aichner and Grimes set up something where Grimes Irish whips them and Aichner catches and plants them in the table. Grimes does his move, but KOR jumps into Aichner and they both go through the table with a Tornado DDT! Grimes in then hit with a Suicide Dive from Cole! Cole hits a Kneecap Brainbuster on the outside, Grimes lands in a kneeling position, Cole hits him with a Superkick. It’s then a Superkick Party as he superkicks everyone on the opposing team. He finishes off with a Corona Crash from the second rope to Thatcher! 1........2......KICK OUT!!!
Cole beats down on Thatcher, but then he’s caught with a Backdrop Driver into the corner and a Butterfly Suplex from Thatcher! He then goes on the Uppercut train with Strong in one corner and Cole in the other. Ends when Strong catches him with the End of Heartache! 1......2.....CAMERON GRIMES BREAKS IT UP WITH A CAVE-IN! He hits Strong with a German Suplex, and then the Orange Crush! KOR and Cole then double Clothesline him, but they’re hit with double Big Boots from Aichner! Aichner and Thatcher go for double Michinoku Drivers, but Cole and KOR get out and hit double Cutters! Cole locks in the Figure Four on Thatcher while KOR hits a Diving Legdrop! Cole then hits the Panama Sunrise! Aichner comes in with a Clothesline to KOR, but he’s with the Florida Keys! Strong then reenters, this time with thumbtacks. He pours them over the ring, and then hits a Backbody Drop to Thatcher onto the tacks! Adam Cole, Kyle O’Reilly and Roderick Strong then all cover, 1.........2........3. The Undisputed Era win, and the night after debut at SummerSlam.
Io Shirai (c) defeats Tegan Nox to retain the NXT Women’s Championship
It’s time for the women’s action now, and it was really tough picking an opponent. So I’ve made something involving two of my faves, Tegan Nox and Io Shirai. It starts with the same Rhea Ripley vs. Dakota Kai match, but it’s interference ridden as Robert Stone and Mercedes Martinez both get in Rhea’s face, Raquel Gonzales does her stuff, Tegan Nox makes her presence known, and so it ends in a DQ. Ripley then is told she’ll have to take care of Mercedes Martinez and the Robert Stone brand before she comes back for the title, which she is happy to do as she just wants Stone gone. Meanwhile Dakota Kai and Tegan Nox fight it out in a Ladder Match. Nox wins after Raquel Gonzales turns on Kai, because I think it’s confirmed she’s going to the main roster now. Nox then unhooks the contract and wins.
Nox will make for a good first opponent for Shirai to have a successful defence against, and also the build to this makes two new feuds in Ripley vs. Martinez and a possible Kai vs. Gonzales. This is a big match for Tegan as she arrived to WWE nearly exactly two years from this show, and reinjured herself, which was nearly the end. But she’s come back, she sort of was in WarGames, she took part in the Rumble, she was on a takeover and is now challenging for the women’s title. Shirai on the other hand, makes it very clear in the hype package that Nox is not on her level and is just going to be used as a ball in kickoff. She is untouchable, she is unstoppable. Nox is a bird setting sail, but the evil of the sky surrounds her and brings her to her doom.
Women’s wrestling in NXT is in my opinion one of its greatest strengths. It’s the best women’s wrestling I’ve seen in North America, with PWG and ROH never fully getting on board of the idea, TNA/Impact with their Knockouts is the only other contender and I’d put that at #2. And then AEW as we all know, have failed with the women. So Nox and Shirai go on second to last in a heavily anticipated match, hype package and probably some metal band playing Shirai to the ring. Nox and Shirai go a solid 15 minutes, story of the match being Nox trying time keep up with Shirai whilst Shirai gets in her head by mocking her injury and other mind games. The thing that injured her the first time around, a Suicide Dive, she avoids doing all match, until the end, when she has the chance to win using it - so she risks it for the biscuit. But she only gets a 2. Shirai then hits the Moonsault and wins.
Keith Lee (c) defeats Dominick Dijakovic to retain the NXT Championship
Time for the big main event match, and I know there are people who probably should get the title match more than Dijakovic, but I just want to see Keith Lee vs. Dominick Dijakovic main event a TakeOver. It always delivers as a match, and especially with the hype of a TakeOver main event it will be A+. The match spawns when the NXT after The Great American Bash, Keith Lee talks about how he got here. He says he spent 2 years in NXT, waiting for this moment to come. He had nearly lost hope, he had been here for a year, but then...he faced Dominick Dijakovic. Now, this wasn’t the first time they’d met, but it’s a special match because Dijakovic has always brought out his best. They’ve always brought out the best in each other. So now that Lee is double champ, he wants to give Dijakovic a NXT Championship match, in the main event of NXT TakeOver. One - last - match.
Next week Dominick Dijakovic cuts a video promo from his home, telling the same “how I got here story.” Talks about his youth and early wrestling career, and then about Keith Lee. He calls Lee the best frenemy you could dream of, and he’s happy for this to be the endgame, and final battle. He will take the title, hold it high, and cement himself as the superior man. Dijakovic wins a match the following week, while Lee wins one the next, and then the go home show sees a promo war between the two, where they say whatever they want about each other. Since they have free reign it’ll probably get personal, putting some extra seasoning on that beef before it goes in the oven. I’ve turned to cooking metaphors, let’s just get on with the match.
To show the sign of the respect, we start off with a handshake. Lee and Dijakovic lock up, but they’re both too powerful for each other as each lock up ends with one tossing the other across the ring. They keep trying though, and this warrants an early “this is awesome” chant from the PC recruits in the crowd. They then start to throw strikes at each other, especially Dropkicks, with Keith Lee throwing them around like leftovers at a buffet. He hits a Discus Punch and a Rolling Elbow, and then goes for a Belly to Belly, but Dijak gets out and hits a Dropsault! He then throws Lee outside and dives from the top rope with a Moonsault! They both lay out on the outside as they recover, until they’re ready to fight and start to unleash strong style. They fight as hard as they can but the strikes don’t take either down, and this really shows how tough they are considering the ferocity of the kicks and chops. Dijakovic unleashed the Violence Party on Lee in the corner, and then a Chokeslam Backbreaker to knock him down finally. 1........2.....the champ keeps fighting!
Lee gets up with a pissed off look, and hits a Mongolian Chop to Dijakovic so hard he goes inside out. He then rolls outside, but there’s no recovering as Lee flies out after him with a Corkscrew Plancha! They then trade punches on the outside, and Lee hits a Superkick which ends the brawl. He throws Dijakovic back in and heads to the top turnbuckle. He looks to dive, but Dijakovic reaches up and Chokeslams him down! He tries to cover, but Lee kicks out at 1! Dijakovic looks at him confused and bewildered, and is then slapped by Lee. Keith runs the ropes and connects a Lariat, sending Dominick inside out. He lifts him up in what seems to be a Delayed Reverse STO, but Dijakovic lifts himself up into a Double Knees to the face! He unleashes three chops and two elbows, then runs from the opposite corner, but is hit with a Big Boot followed by a Overhead Belly to Belly into the corner! Dijakovic hits off the turnbuckles and rolls back into standing. Lee is taunting behind him so he doesn’t see, and then turns around with a shocked look to see Dijakovic jumping off the top rope with a Corkscrew Moonsault! 1.......2......KICK OUT!!!!
Dijakovic is slamming the mat in rage. He pulls himself up and marches around, thinking of what to do. He runs at Lee with a Lariat, but Lee no sells and hits a Shoulder Block, which the challenger isn’t phased by and hits a double-handed chop, then a Enziguri, then a Soccer Kick, Lee catches, throws Dijakovic back who does a Cartwheel and connects a Basement Dropkick. Dijakovic does a Standing Corkscrew Senton, which Lee catches and pulls up into a Release a German Suplex. He then does a Springboard dive, but Dijakovic catches and hits Lee with his own finisher - The Big Bang Catastrophe! 1.......2......LEE KICKS OUT!!! Dijakovic then in anger hits him with several elbows. Lee then hits him with the real Big Bang Catastrophe, but Dominick kicks out and hits THE POUNCE!! Lee collides with the turnbuckles and falls down. Dijakovic then tires to lift him into a Powerbomb, but Lee gets out and tries a Spirit Bomb, but Dijakovic flips out and we get a double down when both guys Bicycle Kick each other!!! The crowd then chant fight forever as both guys lay dead.
Lee recovers inside while Dominick does outside. Lee tries to Suicide Dive, but Dijakovic hits an elbow to the head, meaning his body is now lying across the ropes. Dijakovic comes in and hits a Tiger Feint Kick! He then nails a Springboard Elbow Drop! He doesn’t cover, and instead heads to the corner to prepare for Time to Fly. Lee stumbles up and walks in, but Lee gets out and tries another Overhead Belly to Belly Suplex! The ref is grazed by Dijakovic and is then knocked down. They brawl up the ramp and arrive at the announce table. Dijakovic is hit by a Headbutt and he falls off the stage, but it isn’t a huge fall. What is huge though, is Keith Lee, who dives off the stage with a Doomsault!!!! “They are risking it all for this one objective, which I’m not even sure is the right to call yourself NXT Champion, but the desire to be better than the best!” shouts Mauro Ranallo.
The ref gets up and starts a count, and they make it back to the ring. Dijakovic and Lee then both slap each other back and forth until Lee hits a Spirit Bomb, but of course, Dijakovic no sells, and gets up. Through the agony he gets up, and demands Lee to do it again. Lee does so, but this time covers, 1.........2......DOMINCK DIJAKOVIC KICKS OUT!!!! Dijakovic rolls out and is in even more agony, but keeps going. He then hits a a Backbreaker and Swinging Side Slam combo to Lee, and goes to the corner to line up an attack. LEE THEN KIPS UP AND WHILE DIJAK IS RUNNING THROWS HIM UP INTO A SPIRIT BOMB!!! DIJAKOVIC COUNTERS INTO A FRANKENSTEINER!!! HE HITS THE FEAST YOUR EYES!!!!! 1............2........KICK OUT!!!!!!!! THE FIGHT CONTINUES, THEY’RE THROWING STRIKES, THE REF IS HIT ACCIDENTALLY!!! DIJAKOVIC HITS FEAST YOUR EYES AGAIN BUT THERES NO REF TO COUNT. HE THROWS LEE OUTSIDE AND RUNS THE ROPES, GOES FOR A CANNONBALL SENTON - LEE HITS HIM ACROSS THE SHOULDERS/NECK WITH A STEEL CHAIR!!! Lee throws him back in, HITS ANOTHER CHAIR SHOT!! Ref is back up, Lee rolls him up, 1..........2.........3!!!!!!! Keith Lee wins, after 25 minutes of chaos, and this book is closed. Once Dijakovic is up they shake hands again and hug, and the show ends with everyone’s hands raised. What a feud, what a show.
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2020.08.10 14:45 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Yakut in Russia

Mornin y'all! Hope y'all are having a wonderful and blessed Missions Monday! Meet the Yakut in Russia
How Unreached Are They?
This is a tricky one. If it wasn't for u/CiroFlexo telling me about this people, I probably would not have picked them at first glance. They are technically 3% Christian which falls outside the bounds of the unreached terms. However, the majority of that would probably be Russian Orthodox so..... Further, only 0.1% of them are evangelical or actively sharing their faith. So on the ground they almost certainly look like a UPG. So let's do math now..
If they are only 0.1% evangelical that means that out of their 488,000 people, there are only 488ish believers who actively are sharing their faith. That's one in a thousand that wants to tell others about Jesus. Thats tragically small for a population that claims to be sort of Russian Orthodox...
There is most of a bible in their language but somehow not all of it.
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
The Yakut live uncomplicated, seminomadic lives, tending reindeer and dwelling in simple tents. Alcohol abuse is rampant among the Yakut. In fact, it is so prevalent that the number of murders, early deaths, and suicides attributable to alcohol abuse may seriously jeopardize the future of this small group. Around the world the Yakut are renowned for their strong, hardy, massive Yakut draft horses from Siberia. Joshua Project
The Yakuts engage in animal husbandry, traditionally having focused on rearing horses, mainly the Yakutian horse, reindeer and the Sakha Ynagha (Yakutian cow), a hardy kind of cattle known as Yakutian cattle which is well-adapted to the harsh local weather.
The cuisine of Sakha prominently features the traditional drink kumis, dairy products of cow, mare, and reindeer milk, sliced frozen salted fish stroganina (строганина), loaf meat dishes (oyogos), venison, frozen fish, thick pancakes, and salamat—a millet porridge with butter and horse fat. Kuerchekh [Куэрчэх] or kierchekh, a popular dessert, is made of cow milk or cream with various berries. Indigirka is a traditional fish salad. This cuisine is only used in Yakutia. Wikipedia
History Lesson
The ancestors of Yakuts were Kurykans who migrated from Yenisey river to Lake Baikal and were subject to a certain Mongolian admixture prior to migration in the 7th century. The Yakuts originally lived around Olkhon and the region of Lake Baikal. Beginning in the 13th century they migrated to the basins of the Middle Lena, the Aldan and Vilyuy rivers under the pressure of the rising Mongols. The northern Yakuts were largely hunters, fishermen and reindeer herders, while the southern Yakuts raised cattle and horses.
In the 1620s the Tsardom of Muscovy began to move into their territory and annexed or settled down on it, imposed a fur tax and managed to suppress several Yakut rebellions between 1634 and 1642. The tsarist brutality in collection of the pelt tax (yasak) sparked a rebellion and aggression among the Yakuts and also Tungusic-speaking tribes along the River Lena in 1642. The voivode Peter Golovin, leader of the tsarist forces, responded with a reign of terror: native settlements were torched and hundreds of people were killed. The Yakut population alone is estimated to have fallen by 70 percent between 1642 and 1682, mainly because of smallpox and other infectious diseases.
In the late 1920s through the late 1930s, Yakut people were systematically persecuted, when Joseph Stalin launched his collectivization campaign. It is possible that hunger and malnutrition during this period resulted in a decline in the Yakut total population from 240,500 in 1926 to 236,700 in 1959. By 1972, the population began to recover. Wikipedia
What do they believe?
This one is tricky. I feel like I'm getting mixed signals. So first I'll tell you what my gut tells me, and then I'll let you read the info. So my gut tells me that this is a population who has been "Christianized" but hold onto many of their previous animist traditions. But hear me out, I do not think they are largely Christian nor animist. I think that tradition is what lasts here, and that they are probably nominal even in their animism. So, that does not take away from the fact that they desperately need the Gospel.
The Yakut are shamanists. In the late 1800s anthropologist Waldemar Jochelson vividly described a Yakut religious ceremony: "A shaman has come to heal a sick woman, whose soul has been captured by evil spirits. He has put himself into a trance by inhaling tobacco, dancing, and beating his drum. Now his soul will travel to the spirit world and do battle in order to retrieve the woman's soul and thus restore her. His assistant holds the shaman by a chain so that if he gets lost or trapped in the spirit world he can be pulled back. Some of the flat iron pendants on the shaman's robe represent bird feathers, which allow the shaman's soul to fly. ... As the shaman dances, the noise made by these pieces and by the copper bells and rattles on the robe, as well as the sound of his drum and singing, help summon the spirits." Joshua Project
By the 1820s almost all the Yakuts claimed to have converted to the Russian Orthodox church, but they retained (and still retain) a number of shamanist practices. Wikipedia
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
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2020.08.10 00:23 abhijoysarkar Weekly Update: The Parachute culture, $COTI on Gate.io, Pynk crowdfunding campaign live, Voyager + Sterling Trading Tech…– 22 May - 28 May'20

Weekly Update: The Parachute culture, $COTI on Gate.io, Pynk crowdfunding campaign live, Voyager + Sterling Trading Tech…– 22 May - 28 May'20
Heyo! Continuing with our six-part catch up series to get up to date on the May and June news from Parachute and partners, here’s Part II of VI (22 May - 28 May'20):

If you're in crypto, there's often the random pump/moon/wenBinance talk that props up from time to time in groups. Especially, when someone new joins a project and is unfamiliar with the community culture. At Parachute, we have always made it a point to have more meaningful discussions than price. Cap shared some of his thoughts on this as well. For the #culturalweekend prompt this week, Jason got Parachuters to share about “something weird your family does that is a tradition for them but not a traditional tradition”. Peace Love’s Big Trivia in TTR was quite fun as always. The beta testing group for ParJar swaps was set up this week. Also, Chris organised something amazing this week which will possibly remain a secret amongst Parachute admins (and Doc Vic 😊 ). But if word of it ever goes out, you’ll realise why Parachute is the most wholesome project in all of crypto. Chris also gave out some cool $PAR to folks in the Parachute channel to talk about "something that you didn't spend much money on that had a big impact on your quality of life". This week's Two-for-Tuesday featured music from "female artists, including bands with at least one female member". Click here for the playlist. Thanks Sebastian!
Some good cheer from Alexis all the way from Germany
aXpire’s May recap video covers product updates from Bilr, PayBX etc. To track this week’s 20k $AXPR burn, click here. The team also shared success strategies for law firms. 2gether co-founder Salvador Casquero wrote about best security practices in finance. A new update was pushed to Wednesday Coin’s dApp, WednesdayClub. In this week’s XIO discussions, Citizens talked about ideal time allocation strategies for research and execution. Top Citizens on the Leaderboard stand a chance to win some cool merch. Also, watch out for pesky scams. Voyager announced a partnership with Sterling Trading Tech to launch a crypto trading widget. Proactive Investors covered Voyager in its latest piece chronicling their growing user base. As mentioned in a previous update, CEO Stephen Ehrlich’s crypto investment webinar happened this week. Switch crew did a community AMA just before the $GHOST airdrop snapshot. The team expanded with new dev hires. In preparation for the $GHOST airdrop, ProBit completed its $VSF:$ESH swap and Stex announced support for $ESH/$GHOST airdrop. $ESH was listed on HitBTC and Changelly. Folks who guessed these exchanges correctly won some tokens as well. Founder Josh Case sat down with Mr. Backwards for an interview. Among several updates to the Ghost website, a staking calculator was added. Click here to read the latest technical update from Fantom. $FTM was in the running to be added as a collateral for DAI. Congratulations to Uptrennd for becoming the highest ranked blockchain-based social media platform as per Alexa. They started a SmartLink campaign with 2key Network. The first Uptrennd halvening went live this week. The team is reachable on Discord from now as well. District0x’s latest District Weekly and Dev Updates can be read here and here respectively. Hydro team shared their thoughts on how virtual cards for independent contractors (otherwise referred to as 1099 employees) could improve reimbursement practices. Entries for their Decentralization Ambassador program were opened this week.
These look great, XIO team
This is what is planned for the GHOST ecosystem currently
SelfKey compiled a master list of crypto lending platforms. The Loans Marketplace will feature many of these. Full transcript of the May 12th AMA was released. SelfKey advisor Edmund Lowell spoke at the BlockConf DIGITAL conference this week. Mongolian exchange AIS-X joined the Exchange Marketplace. Pynk’s crowdfunding campaign on Seedrs went live this week. Check out their campaign video here. Amazing production! Plus, this cool feature in City A.M. was the perfect way to close off the week. Wibson hosted a meetup (online of course!) for its Spanish speaking community this week. The crew also introduced the app at an Ethereum event in Buenos Aires. Harmony burned all mainnet tokens mined before Open Staking going public. The latest staking stats and validator data can be seen here and here respectively. That’s right, 3B+ $ONE is already staked. Woohoo! With its latest CoinDCX listing, $ONE got its first INR trading pair. Saweet! The major improvement proposals that were discussed with the community this week were making Open Staking more decentralized and creating a more liquid staking market. This led to the first release after Open Staking. The winners of the effective-median-stake contest were announced. Hope you got a chance to take part in the Flash Quiz. Do you know about all the projects that have been built in the Harmony ecosystem? Here’s a rundown. The team hosted an AMA as well. BitMax changed some of its rules for $ONE staking. Check out COTI’s latest network growth stats here. And super congratulations on winning the Gate.io listing vote! $COTI was also added to Binance’s Locked Savings staking program. Broking platform Troy Trade partnered with COTI to improve its scalability. DoYourTip’s $DYT now has 2500+ HODLers. Neat! Mycro was invited to join BitForex’s app platform CAPP Town. GET Protocol’s GUTS Tickets was covered in Cryptogeeks’ latest blogpost on blockchain-based ticketing.

And with that, it’s a wrap for this week in Parachute and partners! See you again with another update. Cheerio!
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2020.08.03 18:57 Bill__Q Ron Magill: July 30 2020, Hour 3

A synopsis of the Ron Magill segment. See the 2020 Index for other shows.
Vacation days push Dan and Stugotz to Thursday without Greg Cote.

Quote of the day

So look up snow leopard, that is the bang-up bomb diddy of leopards

New stats of the day

number of times Ron says:
Phrase This show Year to date
Bottom line 1 17
at the end of the day 0 11

Animals mentioned

Questions

Brad: Are animals at the zoo as picky about the temperature of their food as people?
Ron: Not necessarily. As we get older animals, it's not as much temperature but palatability. In other words, they like things cut a certain way -- they don't want the pieces too big, too small, some like them minced or sliced. It depends on the palatability -- the form of the food more than the temperature.

Dave: I have two cats, a boy and a girl. The girl drinks her water normally, but the boy just swats the water and licks it off his paw. Why's he do that?
Ron: Heh heh heh. To each his own. Different animals have different ways of doing things. You just need to monitor the amount of water that they're getting, because cats are notorious for kidney disease, kidney failure. Especially in their older age. So if you start noticing that they're drinking a lot of water I would certainly bring it to the vet to get it checked.

Louis: I have a couple of Egyptian goose in my backyard and they seem to have laid a nest about 60 days ago. They were supposed to hatch 30 days in. What's going on?
Ron: Hopefully, he's shooting blanks. Because the bottom line is we don't need more Egyptian geese, here. They're a nonnative species, they're very aggressive, they can go after native species. For me, the more sterile Egyptian geese we have, the better.

Amin Elhassan: When people think about sharks they always talk about the great white shark. But my favorite shark is the mako shark. So I wanted to know, what's another species of animal that has a famous kind of representative but you actually like a less famous version of.
Ron: I'm gonna go with the leopard. The African leopard. Everyone looks at the leopard up in the tree, the classic picture. When you go on safari in Africa that's the animal you want to see, the rarest of the big 5. But to me, the real star in the leopard family is the snow leopard. The one that's found up well over 10,000 feet in the Mongolian mountain range. This is one of the most amazing animals on earth. Very rarely seen by human beings. Spectacular looking. I've seen these things grab a prey and fall down a mountain side, over a thousand feet. OVER A THOUSAND FEET! And survive, still not letting go of the prey. So look up snow leopard, that is the bang-up bomb diddy of leopards.

Dan: How rare was that Planet Earth footage -- the snow leopard isn't often caught on camera, is it?
Ron: Incredibly rare. I mean, that's now the holy grail wildlife photographers. Those Nat Geo guys, they're the Gods of animal photography. Those guys will spend weeks/months, sometimes years in an effort to get 15 seconds of great video.
Dan: You've never seen one, right?
Ron: Never seen one in the wild. That's on my bucket list, but I don't know if I'll live that long.

Kyle: I have a pair of red-shouldered hawks that have been coming to my back deck every year for about 8 or 9 years. Every day, as soon as someone pulls in the driveway, they're both on the back deck. And people have fed them steaks and all kinds of other foods. I'm wondering is it weird that people are feeding them and that they just keep coming back?
Ron: It's not weird that they keep coming back every single day, if people are feeding them. My concern is, what the people are feeding them. Yeah, they'll eat steak and they'll think it's great. It tastes good, but they're not getting all the nutrients they need and I'm hoping that it's not taking away from their natural hunting of going after small mammals and full bodies. Because they need that full carcass; they need the hair, they need the internal organs, they need all those things that have vitamins to keep them going. But again, you can have some kid, if you're going to give him popcorn and cotton candy every day he's gonna keep coming and keep eating it and they're going to get fat, they're not going to be able to process a lot of the normal foods they need to process and they're going to get sick. So that's my big concern and the reason we tell people "DON'T FEED WILD ANIMALS." If you want to have a bird feeder in your backyard for seeds during the winter, but birds of prey, gosh, don't feed them. We need them to go out and get rats and mice.

Dan: You mentioned your bucket list. What else is on it?
Ron: Seeing a snow leopard in the wild, seeing a Chinese panda in the wild, and seeing a platypus in the wild.
Dan: A platypus? It's rare to see in the wild?
Ron: It's fairly rare. It's not endangered or anything. But it's not as big as people think, it's a very shy animal. Again, aquatic; it's one of only two egg-laying mammals. When you think of a mammal laying an egg, that's pretty freaking cool. Not to mention, it also has a very venomous spine on the base of its tail that can give you a pretty venomous injection.

Dan: Put it on the poll, Guillermo. Did you know the platypus could be venomous and inject you?

Chris Cote: If you could turn into any animal
Me: Harpy eagle
Chris Cote: for the weekend
Me: Harpy eagle
Chris Cote: what animal would it be?
Me: Harpy eagle
Chris Cote: And there's a couple things to factor in. Your health is not guaranteed and you have your brain.
Me: Guys, he's going to say harpy eagle.
Ron: Harpy eagle.
Me [give Chris Cote the side eye]
Ron: There's no question about it. It's my favorite animal, lives in the most incredible, beautiful tropical forest. Has no natural predators. It is at the top of the food chain. Thing's got this majestic crest, it's got talons the size of grizzly bear claws, flies like a fighter pilot. That's the animal I want to be for a weekend. Not for a weekend, a lifetime would be great.
Me: Questions like this need to be asked as "other than the harpy eagle..."

Devon: You've said before that the running backs of the animal kingdom would be elephants or the rhinoceros. Who would be your receivers or quarterbacks?
Ron: for my receiver, I'm gonna with the cheetah. You know, fastest land animal, short sprints, quick cuts. Before Stugotz says something like "how's he going to catch the ball", listen we're talking about the ability to run and go after something. Ok. I'm not saying he's going to catch it. The rhino can't really hold a football, the elephant could in his trunk. But, anyway. I would go with the cheetah as the wide receiver and as the quarterback -- again, his ability to throw is going to be tough, but I would go with the dolphin. Just because of the intelligence. You're talking massive intelligence.
Dan and Stugotz: [laughing]
Ron: They can really plot things out.
Dan: That's a terrible choice. Amin, tell him why it's a terrible choice.
Ron: Why is it a terrible choice?
Dan: Because he's gonna have a passing problem and further more he's not gonna be very elusive as a runner.
Amin Elhassan: We have 30 years of Dolphins playing football poorly to know they're not good at it.
Ron: Ok. Listen. Before you guys start going onto the dolphin thing. He doesn't have to pass it with it -- have you ever seen a dolphin hit a ball with his tail? Flip the ball with the tail?
Dan: I have not.
Ron: He'll throw it further than you can, Mr. LeBatard.
Dan: WHAT ABOUT THE ACCURACY? FLIPPING IT WITH HIS TAIL? THE BALL'S ALWAYS GONNA BE OUT IN THE OPEN. IT'S GONNA BE A TURNOVER MACHINE.
Stugotz: So is Fitzpatrick.
Ron: You know what. Dolphins probably look at human beings and go, "how do they do anything with accuracy?" You know what? You train yourself. You have the physical ability to do so, you can do it. Ok, This is what Im talking about. We're talking about hypotheticals here. Again, a dolphin's on land, so I'm assuming that the dolphin is gonna be in water. We're talking about an animal in its natural environment. What position would I want it to play? I want a dolphin to play quarterback. It's a big animal, it's gonna be hard to bring down. talking 7-800 pounds. Big dolphin. And that tail? Lord have mercy, he could stiff-tail people coming in. You guys gotta think this stuff through. You're good with the sports, but the animal stuff, you guys really suck.

Billy Gil: Why has no one trained a dolphin to be a quarterback, then?
Ron: Because football isn't played in the water.
Dan: Oh yeah, there's that. The dolphin would just die in the backfield. Just die. Thank you, Billy, excellent work by you.

Video

here's a snow leopard falling off a cliff. I got snow leopard as my DB.
submitted by Bill__Q to DanLeBatardShow [link] [comments]


2020.08.03 01:14 Chaos0Jester What's in a Name?

"Clan Smith I hav-" Vii'rt of Clan Me-tar'n had rushed into his flat mates room buzzing and excited, his vestigial thorax wings rubbing intermittently, only to discover the sheets in disarray, someone's legs in the air and a loud moan interrupted part way through... "Oh, I am so sorry I di-"
"GET OUT!" Was the all but enraged shout, but it was enough to make Vii'rt flee the room as if an angry wit'reeg was after him. He took to hiding behind the couch as the sound of two humans disentangling themselves emanated from the open doorway along with muttered apologies and empty threats of dismemberment, both came out moments later dressed somewhat decently, the bare minimum for the female who seemed more than comfortable with just having an alien visitor.
"Vii'rt, I don't know how many times I've asked you to please, for the love of god knock before you enter! I just I-" Jonathan K Smith, or Clan Smith to Vii'rt, was interrupted by the female who stuck her hand out and grinned.
"Haiiii! My names Miravel! Jon has no manners, obviously, he didn't introduce us! I'm his fling for a couple of hours and maybe his date tonight if I'm lucky!" She flashed what Vii'rt had heard was called a 'winning smile' at Jon as the man rolled his eyes.
"I hope he does too, I am sorry to intrude on your mating session, I was unaware that..." Began the Mantis like being only, reaching to take the proffered hand, to be interrupted by both huan raucous laughter, apparently Jon had finally gotten over his initial embarrassment and Miravel... well she seemed not to have any to begin with.
"Dude, stop! Heh, alright... So humans don't really have a mating cycle... we were... uh, having some fun... Right Miravel?" Jon explained, looking across at the woman and smiling abashedly.
Her response was a twirl of her hair around one finger and a smug little smirk; "Yes, it was fun. You'll be taking me out tonight though Mister 'My flatmate will be gone for a few hours' ya bloody doofus." There was definite affection there, or so Vii'rt felt.
"What clan are you from Miravel?" The question got a look from Jon that read as something he shouldn't have asked, but the woman answered with the biggest smile.
"I suppose you could say I'm from Clan Langden. What of yourself?" She asked, making a formal headbow and gesturing for him to speak.
It had been a long time since Vii'rt had been asked his clan name, not since Jon had asked him to sign the papers to rent a room of the apartment from him at a reduced rate. He took a breath through his spiracles, his thorax inflating slightly, and spoke "I am Vii'rt of Clan Me-tar'n, born to hive Clk'az of planet Mrrt'kr-kan. Thank you for asking in the formal manner... are you, perchance, a diplomat?"

Later that night, after Jon had taken Miravel for dinner at the Mongolian restaurant half a block away from the park. "So... your part of the diplomatic corps that went to their planet on an Ice-Ship? You only came back a few months ago... and you want me to stick around with you for a bit... as a formal date?" Jon asked, just a little more than stunned that a woman who was, he thought, out of his league by miles would even consider him for more than a quick fling and, maybe, a date. "Just... wow." He chuckled softly and shook his head.
"Yeah, I know. Its a lot to take in, hell I'm still getting a bearing out here, we've made contact with a lot of aliens hey?" She looked around at the nightlife that was moving about them, whilst not as vigorous as the day time hours, was no less varied.
"Some of em contacted us... but, I gotta tell you... we aren't exactly in control now... just another hub for trade and commerce for a different empire, they're nice enough and let us still be us... just, there's no wars which is great... but there's nothing much else either, we get told what we are to do. The work I do, that was decided for me, not complaining however just... you need to know before saying something that might get you in trouble..." He was worried, he didn't want to see her taken away and he cast about nervously, ensuring they were out of earshot of any of the new locals. "Just... be real careful what you say and don't do anything that would draw attention to yourself..."
Miravel made a concerned face but paused as a police vehicle, hovering, went by, the occupants alien. "Alright, we should talk more at your place then I suppose?" She winked at him and he sighed in relief, nodding.

But... what's in a name?
submitted by Chaos0Jester to HFY [link] [comments]


2020.07.30 18:00 SaintRidley Wrestling Observer Rewind ★ Feb. 29, 1988

Going through old issues of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter and posting highlights in my own words, continuing in the footsteps of daprice82. For anyone interested, I highly recommend signing up for the actual site at f4wonline and checking out the full archives.
• PREVIOUS •
1987
FUTURE YEARS ARCHIVE:
The Complete Observer Rewind Archive by daprice82
1-4-1988 1-11-1988 1-18-1988 1-25-1988
2-1-1988 2-8-1988 2-15-1988 2-22-1988
Rewinder note: Sorry about missing last week. Should be looking good going forward, just last week left no time for this.
  • Crockett has taken a page out of WWF’s playbook and announced a card to counterprogram Wrestlemania. Not all the details are known yet, but on March 27 Crockett’s NWA will run a 2.5 hour show from 4 pm to 6:30 pm, the same time slot WW has reserved for Wrestlemania (remember when Wrestlemania was less than 3 hours?). It’s probable that this show will be held at the Greensboro Coliseum, and it’s being billed as some kind of “Clash of the Champions” and is expected to be packed with seven main event level matches. Flair defending against Sting will headline, along with Dusty and the Road Warriors vs. the Powers of Pain and Ivan Koloff in a barbed wire match, Tully and Arn vs. Windham and Luger for the NWA tag titles, Midnight Express vs. the Fantastics for the U.S. tag titles, Mike Rotunda vs. Jimmy Garvin for the TV title in an amateur rules match, Zbyszko vs. Shane Douglas, and tentatively Kerry and Kevin Von Erich are scheduled for this and the Crockett Cup. That last is huge, as it means there’s an open line of communication between Crockett and Ken Mantell.
  • As for Wrestlemania, the card is set for that now. The tournament is the main point of the card, but there will also be a few other matches. Honkeytonk Man vs. Brutus Beefcake match for the IC Title is one, and Dave expects a title change here or sooner than Wrestlemania. Dave hears that Honkeytonk isn’t going to be punished for refusing to drop the belt, but it’s hard to imagine they won’t make an example of him so nobody else gets any bright ideas about refusing to go along with storylines. The British Bulldogs and Koko B. Ware vs. The Islanders and Bobby Heenan is also on the docket, while Demolition and Strike Force will fight for the tag titles. Lastly, Hercules Hernandez takes on Warrior, and a battle royal will feature all those unfortunate no-talent bums who just can’t earn a spotlight match on the card like Sam Houston, Bret Hart, and Harley Race. Celebrity appearances are to include Vanna White as guest timekeeper, Robin Leach of Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous presenting the title to the winner of the tournament (looks like a sign DiBiase will win), and Bob Uecker returning as ring announcer and color commentator.
  • So will Clash of the Champions hurt Wrestlemania? Yes and no. Wrestlemania is theoretically an 18 match card, though double eliminations will probably help bring it down to around 16, and that many matches on a card for a 2.5 hour show (not to mention the ridiculous length of WWF ring entrances, intermissions, and other assorted nonsense they tend to pack a show full of) means most matches won’t even top 5 minutes (more on the length of the show next week: spoilers, Wrestlemania is closer to 4 hours). The card for Wrestlemania is honestly just not good. Dave thought the tournament was a stroke of genius at first, but the layout and talent in it make it much weaker than it should be. Hogan, who is the big marquee guy, is now just one of the boys here, and that means there’s no real main event to hype up because the tournament means they can’t build the show around Hogan vs. DiBiase or Hogan vs. Andre. And that probably hurts impulse purchases on ppv. It makes some sense to make Hogan one of the boys if he’s taking the summer off, though, and all indications point that way, because the goal is to make the belt the main draw of the company independent of Hogan. But that’s unlikely to work. No belt today can draw on its own. Hogan is a draw. Flair is a draw. Hennig and Perez aren’t draws, with or without belts. There’s no difference between a show where Flair defends the belt and one where he’s in a tag match, and the same goes for Hogan: they’re the draws, and fans don’t care about the belt. And you’ll notice not one word of that has a thing to do with whether Crockett will hurt WWF on Wrestlemania with their show. And that’s because for the most part, any damage done to Wrestlemania is WWF’s own fault for booking the show they’ve booked. Wrestlemania 4 will be a success. No question there, and there’s zero chance Crockett can ruin the show with their counteroffer. What they can do is cost WWF a bit of money, just like WWF did to them in January. There is a chunk of WWF’s potential market for Wrestlemania who will watch Crockett’s show instead because it is free and Wrestlemania costs $20. Wrestlemania will be a success because it’s Wrestlemania and last year’s show earned a lot of good will in the fans’ eyes as a can’t-miss show like the Super Bowl. So Crockett will have a small effect, and probably cost WWF serious money, but in the grand scheme of things it won’t be a big blow. Crockett stands to do well, as most of the country can’t get ppv so they ought to get a pretty solid rating, while WWF will most probably have a similar buyrate to last year and pull in around $18 million (which will net the company $9 million after cable gets their cut). And that’s not touching closed-circuit, which WWF will do well with, but that’s where Crockett can cost them money. Being a free alternative will probably knock off about 10% of WWF’s closed-circuit viewership, possibly more if they build well since WWF has booked Wrestlemania the way they have. And still, there’s taking into consideration the reality of what happened in January. Can Crockett get past the negative reception of its last few big shows against WWF’s run of well-received big shows?
  • Finally, something different, it's Road Warrior Animal injury update time. Dave knows he’s made errors and wants to get everything straight in one go here. So. Animal was legit injured on January 29 in Pittsburgh. Warlord, not Barbarian, Samoan dropped Animal. It was done wrong or Animal bumped wrong or just freak accident, but thebone above Animal’s eye got smashed badly, and it wasn’t known how bad right away. He went to Greensboro for the weightlifting competition the next day, and they were worried about pressure on the eye, so while they used legit weights they just called out fake numbers (as opposed to WWF, which went with fully gimmicked weights for theirs). After the competition, Animal went to the hospital and they discovered he had a detached retina, broken bone, and his eye was knocked half an inch into his forehead. He had eye surgery, and they’re advertising his return for this coming week. No word on if that’s going to happen or not, though - they were pushing that he’d return in Philly last week when they knew he wasn’t going to be. More on this next week, because Dave keeps finding this story to change on him.
  • [Alabama/Knoxville] The Continental split-up finally went down. The Knoxville territory will be called USA Pro Wrestling and will be running east Tennessee, with Ron Fuller running the show. Their roster includes Mongolian Stomper, Buddy Landel, the Rock & Roll RPMs (Mike Davis and Tommy Lane) as USA Tag champions, Hector Guerrero, Doug Furnas (injured with a concussion), “Bullet” Bob Armstrong, Austin Idol, and a few other names. Continental Championship Wrestling will remain in Alabama and start running Northwest Florida again as well, with David Woods running the promotion. Dutch Mantell, Wendell Cooley (currently out with a broken kneecap), Lord Humongous (Sid Eudy) and Detroit Demolition (Randy Culley, aka Moondog Rex, who actually was part of the original Demolition while Barry Darsow grew his hair out, and still wearing Demolition gear) managed by Downtown Bruno (later on it turns out Culley is not being managed by Bruno and is instead the fourth member of a stable including Robert Fuller, Dutch Mantell, and Jimmy Golden as a weak imitation of the Four Horsemen called the Studs), Dirty White Boy Tony Anthony (and Mystic as Dirty White Girl), Tom Prichard, Scott Hall, Robert Fuller and Jimmy Golden as tag champs, and some others.
  • Memphis is going to start on Financial News Network on April 2 and run weekly on Saturday nights at 9 pm eastern. Don’t rest on this info, as it’s outdated by next week. The network has discussed possibly running New Japan on Sunday nights, but Dave thinks it’s so unlikely to actually happen he shouldn’t have bothered typing it.
  • There’s been a fund set up to help pay Al Blake’s (Vlaidimir Petrov) legal expenses. Blake was convicted a few months ago for cocaine trafficking. Dave gives the info for people to write in and get more information about the fund.
  • Billy Jack Haynes has been granted a promoter’s license in Oregon and started a promotion called Oregon Wrestling Federation. He apparently plans to hold six shows a week in Oregon, with himself as top babyface. Haynes will now be in direct competition with both Don Owen and Vince McMahon. Plans are to have a roster of about 14-16 wrestlers, but no names are official yet, and there’s rumor that he’ll get tv in Portland on the local ABC affiliate. Haynes plans to concentrate on big guys rather than small guys like most of the regional territories now focus on. The only name that anyone knows he has contacted is Tom Zenk. Owen also runs Washington, but no plans currently exist for Haynes to run up there. Owen’s promotion has been around since the 1920s, and there’s really not room for two regional promotions, so this should be interesting to see how it shakes out. Also interesting to see what happens with Haynes wrestling - reports from WWF indicate that he left because of poor health due to a heart condition. It’s really hard to find any real information with a quick google search, but I strongly suspect that this venture goes under before the year is out.
  • The Simmons Research Bureau released its annual sports demographics statistics for this year, and pro wrestling is one of the sports they cover. Some good news and some bad news for wrestling, of course, and the accuracy of these numbers is debatable, but they are important in that they are perceived as facts by advertising firms and thus these are very important for figuring out advertising rates. In good news: wrestling supposedly saw a 5% increase in viewers over the past year with 30.3 million adult viewers, ranking 7th behind pro football, MLB, college football, the NBA, college basketball, and boxing. Sports viewing on the whole was down 5.6% though, and wrestling and the NBA were the only top 10 sports to see an increase (boxing was down 16.4% from last year). Dave doesn’t really take the report seriously because of its findings on roller derby. Derby supposedly saw a 29.8% increase over last year, but Dave thinks that’s just preposterous, as just two years ago roller derby had national coverage on ESPN and drew good ratings, and last year they weren’t even on the list while this year it was 20th out of 21 listed). This year? No new tapes for syndication, one Derby group isn’t even running, and the other hasn’t made new tv in over a year. So the idea that they have been getting more viewers (to the tune of a 29% increase) without putting out new material for tv is just absurd. Setting that aside, the bad news is wrestling’s demographics are considered less desirable by advertisers. The raw numbers look good and might make it a good buy for advertisers, but they’ll pay less for ad time because wrestling viewership isn’t dominated by the demographics advertisers want to market to. Wrestling, according to Simmons, is strongest among Black folks, 18-24 year old men, men more than women (61% of the audience is men, 39% women) in general, low income families, people who have less than a high school education, and single adults. In short, advertisers will look at this and conclude wrestling fans are stupid, poor, and too young (18-24 men don’t have the same level of disposable income as another age bracket up) and Black to be worth the effort of spending large amounts of money to try and reach for little perceived return.
  • A correction on Crockett Cup - it’s set for April 22/23 in Greensvile, S.C. for the first day and Greensboro for the second day. Seedings will likely be announded on March 27, and Dave recommends readers (a lot of readers typically have attended the Cup) stay in Charlotte since it’s halfway between both sites.
  • Wrestlemania tickets should be sold out by the time this issue reaches readers. After figuring out exactly how many freebies they’re giving, somewhere between 7,000 and 9,000 tickets were being held out of 18,165 total seats. As of February 19, around 1,500 tickets were left to be sold, and paid attendance will be in the 15,000 range. That means roughly 3,000 freebies.
  • The Penthouse story on the Von Erichs has been delayed again. The earliest it’ll appear is August, and given the history of the family, they’ll likely suffer one real tragedy, two fake tragedies, and find a new fake relative all before the issue hits newsstands.
  • Paul E. Dangerously had a hilarious promo moment in Southern Championship Wrestling while interviewing Randy Rose. Paul was saying he doesn’t care how much money it costs, he’s going to do away with Tommy Rich, and Rose pulls out his wallet and throws a bunch of dollar bills in the air. Paul just looks at him and says something along the lines of “I see you cashed Verne’s check.”
  • The Bunkhouse Stampede finals did a 3.5% buyrate out of 6 million available homes, which means roughly 200,000 buys. Gross revenue should be in the $3 million range, with JCP getting about half. Dave’s sources said anything higher than 3% would be profitable, so the show wasn’t a bomb financially, but it definitely could have been better.
  • [Memphis] Over here the AWA tag titles are held up between the Rock & Roll Express and the Midnight Rockers. The finish on February 15 in Memphis saw a ref bump, and then a second referee came out, and both referees counted simultaneous pins for each side. The next day in Lousiville (which drew 3,000, when normally they draw 1,000) they repeated the finish, and probably did the same the next night in Evansville as well. So there will be rematches in each city as well to decide the champion. Ah the days of non-televised shows being the important thing, so you could do this sort of thing and really make the title histories convoluted and confusing.
  • [Memphis] Missy Hyatt showed up on February 20’s tv in Memphis with Doug Gilbert. She avoided the subject of Eddie Gilbert, who hasn’t made an appearance, but that’s obviously going to happen. The story as Dave understands is that Gilbert was fired by Crockett for missing two tv tapings nobody had told him he was supposed to be at. It’s a miracle he lasted as long as he did anyway, considering he somehow got into the position of UWF booker for the UWF vs. NWA feud and wound up outlasting all the ex-UWF guys except Black Bart, Sting, and Rick Steiner.
  • New to Memphis is an opening act heel guy named Scotty the Body. Dave’s heard of him from some independent promotion somewhere, but the guy isn’t getting a push, and from what Dave’s heard of his ability, he doesn’t deserve one. Eh, never say nevermore, because this is the Observer debut of Raven.
  • [Oregon] The Frank Bonema Memorial show on February 16 was a major disappointment, only drawing 600. The matches were all good, at least. The Grappler beat Hennig for the AWA title after using a loaded boot, but the promoter later on said he was ordered by AWA president Stanley Blackburn to hold up the title (which means the title is held up in both Minneapolis and Oregon). Given the time difference, fans in Oregon must be expected to believe Blackburn is the hardest working president in wrestling, since it was well past midnight in Minneapolis when he supposedly made the call to hold the title up.
  • Stampede is being forced into a smaller building due to the Olympics being in Calgary. The building they have to work with seats 950, and with all the competition around town they’ll not be able to draw very well in all likelihood. And even after the Olympics, with how much money the event takes out of the economy, they’re likely to still have problems for a while.
  • In what will remain of Continental (Alabama), Scott Hall is being set up to feud with Lord Humongous (Sid Eudy). Hall is improving, but is nowhere near ready to have a good match with Humongous, who is just awful. Probably too much softball stunting his ability.
  • Is the world ready for a Von Erich comic book? No, not really, but we're getting one anyway. Creative Ink of Tyler, Texas is scheduling the March release of “The Saga of the Von Erich Warriors” in which Kerry, Kevin, and Fritz are taken from Earth to the planet Namoria to rescue the Namorians from attackers from the planet Nefarian. The comic winds up not coming out until 1989, and it’s a one off single issue.
Read: The Saga of the Von Erich Warriors
  • If Ken Mantell and Jim Crockett can strike a deal, expect Flair vs. Kerry Von Erich in Texas Stadium in May. Don't hold your breath. WCCW has started doing okay business again (okay, however, does not translate to taking Crockett’s place as the number 2 promotion like some people who have way too many drugs in their system think), so that’s probably helpful to negotiations.
  • WCCW has cut ticket prices to $5 for their February 22 Fort Worth show, headlined by the Thunderdome cage match. The Von Erichs and Steve and Schaun Simpson and Bill Irwin will face Buddy Roberts and King Parsons and Rip Morgan and Angel of Death and Eric Embry in a cage match where all ten men are in the ring tornado style, and each time a guy gets pinned he gets handcuffed to the corner and when all members of a team are handcuffed their opponents get to uncuff their partners and beat the losers for five minutes without a referee.
  • WCCW came up with something Dave thinks is even dumber than buying a belt. On February 14 (Dave has the 15th), the Texas tag titles were contested in a best two of three falls, where the final fall went to a double countout. So they brought out a deck of cards and each team drew a card, with the high card winning the titles. So John Tatum and Jack Victory won by drawing the high card against the Fantastics.
  • No word yet from AWA’s Feb 20 Las Vegas tapings before they go on hiatus other than the Rock & Roll Express debuted (or were scheduled to, update on this below) as babyfaces. Obviously that’s a silly move, since they have a natural feud with the Midnight Rockers if they were heels and they have always been booed in the Twin Cities. Also Tom Zenk quit the AWA on the day of the taping just as they were setting up for a feud between him and Curt Hennig (also an update on Zenk below). Zenk knows his worth, though, and he knows he’s not going to be paid decently to actually wrestle in AWA, so it’s not worth doing. Also, he seems to have no idea what the thinking behind having him debut in a draw with Billy Robinson before going on to feud with Hennig.
  • Speaking of AWA pay, Hennig isn’t the only one who will be paid while AWA is on hiatus. Kevin Kelly and Madusa are also on guarantees, although theirs are substantially less than Hennig’s Hennig is getting around $1500 per week, while they’re on under $300 per week. Better than nothing, though.
  • Here’s the current situation with the tag titles and world title in AWA. So the tag titles are currently held up in three different cities, but everywhere else the Midnight Rockers are definitively the tag champions. As for the world title, that’s held up in two cities and they have different challengers with claims to the title in those cities. Totally not a headache to keep track of.
  • Verne Gagne and Wally Karbo’s lawsuit has been settled out of court. Karbo was Gagne’s partner and co-founder of the AWA when they broke away from the NWA back in 1960, and he sold his interest in the company to Gagne in 1985, from which I suspect this lawsuit emerged. From piecing info together (none of the newsletters to this point that I have contain anything about the lawsuit, and this isn’t easy to pull from the internet either), it looks like Gagne was unable or unwilling to pay what he owed to Karbo in full, so Karbo sued, and here we are with the settlement. Dave’s gotten two stories out of this settlement: one has Verne agreeing to pay in full by March 1, while one report says Karbo is settling for getting 10 cents on the dollar of what he’s owed. Maybe we’ll learn more in the future, because it’s an interesting piece of info about the death spiral of the AWA.
  • Former UWF TV Champion Savannah Jack has developed serious heart problems. Serious enough he may need a heart transplant. He’s still working as a manager right now for Pro Wrestling America. Don’t worry - Savannah Jack will pull through this one.
  • POWW is scheduling 20 dates in March. A few of their women can work, but most are trying to get exposure to launch into modeling or film acting, which, hey, do what you gotta do to make it. The pay for them is pretty good, Dave hears, but the issue is that their training hasn’t really given them enough to really make it in wrestling for any of them who choose to try - the ex-GLOW girls in particular apparently don’t even know what spots are, let alone how to do them. It makes the matches between the women who can work and those who can’t really bad.
  • Global Wrestling in Florida has lost all their big name talent except Colonel Kirchner. Dave says they’ve become the “only amateur pro wrestling organization in the country” if you get what he’s saying.
  • A Muscular Dystrophy auction at a new york night club saw a bunch of sports memorabilia auctioned off, including a pair of Bruiser Brody’s boots. The boots sold for $500.
  • There’s a new book by Jim Friedman called Drawing Heat coming out. Dave’s going to read it this week and give impressions, but his initial impression is that it’s a smart analysis of how wrestling has changed over the years.
  • Apparently on their last Japan tour, Abdullah the Butcher and TNT had some issues. TNT refused to work with Abby for a few days, feeling like he was being held back to make Abby look better, but they resolved it. Likewise, Tatsumi Fujinami boycotted a card where he was supposed to team with Inoki because Inoki’s ego is planet-sized. But that has also been worked out.
  • Very little of the New Japan jr. heavyweight tournament was broadcast in Japan. TV Asahi believes that jr. heavyweight matches between Japanese guys don’t create much in the way of viewer interest, and were really only interested in the matches pitting a Japanese guy against a foreigner.
  • All Japan is putting Killer Khan, Tiger Chung Lee, and Shunji Takano in Tenryu’s Revolution group. Khan and Lee are on the older side and it just makes Dave wish Baba would invest more in younger talent. Takano has excellent potential with this group, at least. I'll be keeping an eye on this - 1988 is where Revolution starts picking up steam.
  • John Tenta is a candidate for most improved in Japanese Wrestling Journal for 1988. He throws the best dropkick in the entire business and makes the Road Warriors look like kids. His dropkick is so good it's actually his photo on Wikipedia
  • According to Japanese Wrestling Journal, the December 27 New Japan show where the fans rioted in Sumo Hall drew massive ratings when Takeshi Kitano appeared. Dave just quotes a translation of what the journal says and I’ll do it here too:
It started off with a 6 rating while Kobayashi wrestled Hase for the jr. title however it drew nearly a 17 rating at its peak when Takeshi Kitano, one of the top comedians in Japan, appeared at the Sumo Hall for the first time. This means that Takeshi has strong ratings power for TV. This is the reason Inoki and TV Asahi joined hands with the famous comedian. However, Takeshi’s angle is fading out because of the riot held in the Sumo Hall. To make matters worse, New Japan is banned from using the Sumo Hall “for good.” There is nothing wrong with Takeshi being involved in the business since the TV was in a critical situation and New Japan had to take desperate steps to keep the show in prime time, but the plan backfired due to Inoki’s ego.
  • AWA update - the Rock and Roll Express didn’t show up to the Vegas taping. So Paul Diamond and Pat Tanaka got a non-title match with the Midnight Rockers and won that.
  • [WWF] Cuban Assassin and Badnews Brown almost had an incident at the WWF tv tapings on February 16 and 17 in Wichita and Topeka, Kansas. Brown was chasing Assassin around with a chair. Apparently there’s some bad blood between them (and their wives got into it as well) stemming from their Calgary days that led to Assassin leaving Calgary. I guess nothing actually happened beyond the chase with the chair, though, because Dave doesn’t say anything else.
  • Recent AWA shows have been drawing between 42 and 300 fans. The Baron Von Raschke vs. Sheik Adnan grudge match they taped at the Vegas taping will definitely boost those numbers. Yesiree.
  • Tom Zenk apparently left AWA because they kept blowing him off when he asked for guaranteed money. Verne, you can’t expect people to stick around if you won’t pay them.
  • The AWA Title situation remains screwed up, but that’s pretty normal. On the February 21 airing of their Minneapolis tv show, Verne said all the midwestern promoters want to recognize Greg Gagne as champion and said if Stanley Blackburn doesn’t like it, then maybe AWA should get a new president. And thus Stanley Blackburn has been put in the position of being the top heel in the promotion, a full decade before Vince McMahon would actually successfully position himself the same way. Verne also compared this to the situation that led to the formation of the AWA in the first place - the Lou Thesz vs. Edouard Carpentier match in 1957 where Carpentier beat Thesz in two falls (one by DQ) and the NWA wouldn’t recognize the Carpentier as champion but all the midwestern promoters decided to recognize Carpentier as the legitimate champion (and the NWA would eventually pretend Carpentier’s reign never happened at all), which led to them uniting under Verne and Karbo a few years later when Verne beat Carpentier (by countout in the third fall) and forming the AWA. Dave’s not sure what to make of all this, but there seems to be a lot of pressure on Hennig and AWA seems to be holding Greg as an option to cover their asses if Hennig does something. But Hennig really hurt himself bad taking a bad neck and shoulder bump and is supposed to be resting, but instead he worked Vegas and Portland and the AWA office is mad that he’s missed shows (maybe they’re looking for an excuse to cut his guarantee given their financial situation). Dave just hopes Crockett’s people wake up, because Hennig would make a perfect fourth Horseman.
Watch: Gagne vs. Carpentier for the World Title in the match that launched the AWA
  • WTBS has extended its contract with Crockett through 1994. There are a bunch of changes to the tv on TBS as well. The Saturday morning studio show is now becoming NWA Pro on a one-hour delay. The Saturday evening show will almost always be in-studio, and Sunday will be in the arena every week beginning in April with high caliber matches (they’re looking at only 3-4 matches per week for that, which should give the show decent length for undercard matches and 20 minutes for the main event). The Sunday show is aimed at getting ratings up (workrate = ratings, you know), and Saturday is mainly to build house show interest. And the TBS shows will now all be part of the syndicated package, and that should boost their syndicated rating to around the 8.5 level, which is just 1.5 points behind WWF and should get them decent ad sales income through TV.
  • Talks between Crockett and Mantell have gotten “real cold” as of the latest info. Dave’s thinking nothing’s going to come of it at this point.
  • FlaiSting at Clash of the Champions will have J.J. Dillon in a cage above the ring. They’ll also have three judges to decide the match in the event of a time-limit draw. TBS has also agreed to four Clash-like specials per year and Turner signed a five year deal with Crockett to co-promote ppv cards together. So look to Crockett to try to do another ppv this year.
  • A reader suggests that since the Von Erichs keep winning Most Disgusting Promotional Tactic that Dave should rename the award. The Fritz Von Erich Promotional Tactic of the Year would allow Dave to stop spilling so much ink on how scummy the Von Erichs are and instead allow a quick reminder without having to go into detail. It's funny, because this is the last year the Von Erichs will ever win the award. Fritz's fake heart attack will win for 1988 - next year WWC will win for pushing Invader #1 (fuck Invader #1) a year after he murdered Bruiser Brody, the 90s are pretty evenly between WCW and WWF, and from 2001 on WWF/E only loses this award twice: TNA in 2007 (signing Pacman Jones) and Bellator in 2016 (Kimbo vs. Dada 5000). Really, it's the Vince McMahon Promotional Tactic of the year award at this point in all but name.
  • Did you know that Boris Malenko was apparently blacklisted out of the mainstream promotions back in 1972? I didn’t. But apparently it followed a babyface turn in Florida where he teamed with Eddie Graham’s son Mike. Dave’s not sure why he got blacklisted, only that it was pretty common at that time. He did briefly go to Texas in 1972, maybe that had something to do with it?
  • Magnum T.A.’s latest on-air protege is Shane Douglas. In other Magnum news, his doctors have told him he ought to be able to start jogging again by summer.
  • Crockett is working with the people behind the Candian tv show Learning the Ropes that is being offered up for syndication soon. It’s a comedy about a school teacher whose night job is as a masked wrestler and features clips of NWA wrestlers in character, and if it’s a hit this could help Crockett get some of their guys to become real celebrities. Needless to say, you probably don't remember this show because it wasn't a hit, and if it does ring a bell it's probably thanks to Brian Zane or Wrestlecrap.
Watch: Learning the Ropes opening
Watch: Wrestling with Wregret's review of Learning the Ropes
  • Reports of Crockett’s demise are greatly exaggerated. They drew $350,000 last weekend alone, so they’re still going reasonably strong.
  • Big praise for the Varsity Club in the NWA. Dave’s amazed at how well the gimmick has helped Mike Rotundo turn things around when his career appeared to be stagnating.
  • Although nearly everyone agrees Sting has surpassed Luger, Luger’s still the guy Crockett’s going to be putting time into as the young babyface. Luger’s still going to get all the chances, and Dave likens it to a first-round draft pick who turns out not so hot and a 7th-round pick who does better: you still keep giving the first guy chances because you don’t want to admit you made a mistake and because you’ve invested too much time and money into him already. Speaking of monetary investment, Luger’s contract is seven times more lucrative than Sting’s. So yeah, they’re gonna run with Luger to make that money worth it because the sunk cost fallacy is a difficult one to get over. Sting’s contract runs out in May, so those negotiations could become quite interesting.
THURSDAY: Who will win the Wrestlemania tournament?, Michael Hayes gets the book in World Class, and more
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